If a Millimeter Were a Year/Light-Year


Various intuitive methods have been used to present cosmological distances, or cosmological and geological time. Carl Sagan's "cosmic year" was one way:  We take the entire history of the universe to consist of one year, which leaves all of human history to some fraction of the last second.

The following table does this a different way. If a millimeter is taken to represent a light-year, and if the Hubble Constant is 50 km/s/MPC, making the Hubble Time 19.5 billion years (Gy), the entire universe would fit on the surface of the earth:  the semi-circumference of a great circle, started at Los Angeles, is 20,002 km, or 20 billion millimeters. Similarly, if a millimeter is taken to represent a year, the history of the universe fits on the surface of the earth, the history of the earth reaches out to about Nome, Alaska or to Haiti, and recorded human history would not get outside the classroom that I use.

This device gives us a comprehensible scale to relate human history, even a single lifetime, to the age and size of the entire universe. A millimeter is a small but familiar unit of distance. As a year, it means that moving across the room gets out out of human history, down the street, outside the existence of homo sapiens, and not too far down the freeway to the Jurassic. We can go all the way back to the beginning of the Paleozoic without leaving California. As a light year, a millimeter gives us the entire Milky Way Galaxy on about the same scale as the Campus Center building at Valley College. The Local Group is easily contained in the area of Sherman Oaks, while the Virgo Cluster is little more than the distance to Palmdale. The closest bright quasar, 3C 273, is then about as far away as Nashville, Tennessee. The truly distant quasars are nearly as far as Mauritius.

A millimeter as a year enables us to relate the scale of our own lives (a few inches) to historical (the room), anthropological (across campus), geological (down the road), and cosmological (across the continent) time. A millimeter as a light year gives us a corresponding astronomical scale, but a light year as a unit of distance is really larger, in a sense, than a year as a unit of time. Light takes a year to go a light year, but even travelling at the speed of sound, it would take us a million years to go the same distance. Four millimeters as the distance to the closest star is good for a map of the galaxy, but it gives us no sense of how much further that is than the distance from the earth to the moon, the sun, or Jupiter. If a millimeter were an astronomical unit, the mean distance from the earth to the sun, then the closest star (Alpha Centauri, at 4.24 light years), would be 268 meters away (across campus). There are 63,240 astronomical units to a light year. Unfortunately this scale then puts even the Andromeda Galaxy (2.38 million light years) at 150,512 kilometers away, almost halfway to the moon. This is well outside of what we can intuitively relate to. A millimeter as a light year thus keeps the universe with reach, even if we lose the finest detail.

All distances are calculated starting with the classroom, in the Campus Center building of Los Angeles Valley College, in Van Nuys, California. To those unfamiliar with the Los Angeles area, distances starting at about 300 m will become mysterious with references to local streets and nearby communities and cities. At about 200 km we start getting to major cities in California and beyond. Entries that merely note distances and times on the geological or cosmological scale, are indented slightly.

Basic information on galaxies for this list is derived from the Nearby Galaxies Catalog, by R. Brent Tully, Cambridge University Press, 1988. This uses 75 km/s/MPC for the Hubble Constant. The distances of the most distant galaxies and quasars that follow have been calculated on the basis of a Hubble Constant of 50 km/s/MPC. However, the distances for many nearer galaxies have not yet been recalculated from Tully's Constant of 75. Such distances are therefore liable to be too small by up to several million light-years. Some duplicate entries occur, so the differences can be compared. Although it is not important for the purpose of this demonstration, this inconsistency should be kept in mind; and the following figures should not be used as an independent source for galactic distances.

I must say that I prefer 50 km/s/MPC for this exercise, since it makes the universe fill the surface of the earth so neatly. However, estimates of Hubble Constant have been growing steadily larger since the 70's. I am informed by astronomers at UCLA that their best estimate for the Constant now is 71 km/s/MPC. If it is as large as 75 km/s/MPC, then the Hubble Radius is only as far as 13040 km, which on this chart gets us as far as the open universes -- the distance to Chad or St. Helena.

Within the galaxy, the best source found was The Guide to the Galaxy, by Nigel Henbest and Heather Couper, Cambridge University Press, 1994. It is hard to keep track of where all the stellar and deep space distances came from, but the Sky Catalogue 2000.0, Vols. 1 & 2, edited by Alan Hirshfeld and Roger W. Sinnott, Sky Publishing Corporation and Cambridge University Press, 1982, was used extensively. Some Quasar distances were just plucked out of Sky & Telescope at different times, often as they were discovered.

Most of the terrestrial distances listed were calculated with a program called "BEARINGS," 1982, 1986, Zephyr Services, 1900 Murray Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15217. Many other distances in the United States, especially the local ones, were determined by using the CD-ROM "MapExpert," Version 2.0 for Windows, 1993, DeLorme Mapping, Lower Main Street, P.O. Box 298, Freeport, Maine 04032. Sometimes different results for the distances were obtained, since measuring the distance to a city or a country depends on where you pick to measure to. So occasionally alternate distances are given.

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HOLOCENE EPOCH, present-10,000 y
.....4.24 LY [1], Alpha Centauri [2]
.....8.80 LY, Sirius [3]

1 cm = 10 y
.....26.4 LY, Vega
.....35.8 LY, Arcturus
.....[Far Edge of Local Fluff] [4]
.....42.4 LY, Capella
.....68.5 LY, Aldebaran

7 cm = 2.75 inches = 70 y, approximate length of a human lifetime
.....94.5 LY, Algol
10 cm = 100 y
.....121 LY, Almach
12.8 cm = 128 y, time since the Civil War (1861-1865)
.....150 LY, Hyades Open Cluster [5]
.....[Local Bubble]
.....179 LY, Rasalas

8.5 inches, width of this page [in hard copy] = 21.6 cm = 216 y
21.7 cm = 217 y, time since the Declaration of Independence (1776)
.....258 LY, Spica
11 inches, length of this page [in hard copy] = 27.9 cm = 279 y
.....309 LY, Betelgeuse
.....408 LY, Pleiades Open Cluster

44.7 cm = 447 y, time since Martin Luther (1483-1546)
.....522 LY, Beehive Open Cluster
76.6 cm = 766 y, time since Chingiz Khân (d.1227)
.....783 LY, M 7 Open Cluster [6]
.....913 LY, Rigel
.....1000 LY, M 42 Great Orion Nebula [Orion Arm] [7]

1 meter = 100 cm = 1000 y, approximate time since the Byzantine Emperor Basil II Bulgaroctonus (963-1025 AD)
.....1.83 kLY [8], Deneb [9]
.....2.61 kLY, M 67 Open Cluster [Orion Arm]

3.216 m = 3216 y, time since Ramesses II (1290-1224 BC)
.....4.08 kLY, M 29 Open Cluster [Sagittarius Arm] [10]
4.566 m = 4566 y, time since Khûfû and the Great Pyramid (c.2573 BC)
.....5.22 kLY, M 8 Lagoon Nebula [Sagittarius Arm]
5.4 m = 17.7 ft = 5400 y, approximate length of human history
5.754 m = 18.9 ft = 5754 y, time since the Jewish Creation
.....7.34 kLY, NGC 869/884 Open Clusters [Perseus Arm] [11]
8.44 m x 8.16 m, dimensions of Campus Center 205 = 8440 y x 8160 y [12]


.....9.39 kLY, M 24 Open Cluster [Sagittarius Arm]
10 m (32.8 ft) = 10 ky, time since the beginning of the Holocene Epoch and the end of the Wisconsin Glacial

PLEISTOCENE EPOCH, 10 ky-2 My
.....17.9 kLY, M 12 Globular Cluster [13]
18 m = 18 ky, time since height of the Wisconsin Glacial
.....25.0 kLY, NGC 3603 Nebula [Sagittarius Arm]
.....27.7 kLY, Center of the Milky Way Galaxy

35 m = 35 ky, time since the origin of Homo sapiens sapiens
.....36.9 kLY, M 2 Globular Cluster
.....56.1 kLY, M 53 Globular Cluster
.....75 kLY, far edge of the Milky Way Galaxy

85 m = 85 ky, Campus Center to the Physics Building = time since beginning of Wisconsin Glacial [14]
.....113 kLY, NGC 7006 Globular Cluster
100 m = 100 ky, approximate length of Campus Center building
.....100 kLY, approximate diameter of the Milky Way Galaxy
125 m = 125 ky, Campus Center to the Engineering Building = time since the origin of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
.....163 kLY, Large Magellanic Cloud (0524-69, Local Group) [15]
.....196 kLY, Small Magellanic Cloud (0051-73, Local Group)

200 m = 200 ky, Campus Center to the Planetarium = time since "Eve" (origin of all present human mitochondrial DNA) [16]
.....219 kLY, Draco Dwarf Galaxy (U 10822, Local Group)
.....274 kLY, Sculptor Dwarf Galaxy (0057-33, Local Group)

300 m = 300 ky, Campus Center to Burbank Blvd = time since the origin of archaic Homo sapiens
.....304 kLY, NGC 2419 Globular Cluster
445 m = 445 ky, Campus Center Room 205 to the corner of Burbank & Fulton
.....450 ky, age of Kohala volcano, Island of Hawaii
.....500 ky, age of Mauna Loa volcano, Island of Hawaii
.....613 kLY, Fornax Dwarf Galaxy (0237-34, Local Group)
.....860 ky, age of East Maui volcano (Haleakala), Island of Maui
1 kilometer = 1000 m = 1,000,000 y = 1 My, distance to the corner of Fulton & Weddington
.....1.03 My, age of volcano, Island of Kahoolawe
.....1.46 My, age of volcano, Island of Lanai
.....1.6 My, time since origin of Homo erectus
.....1.63 My, age of West Maui volcano, Island of Maui
1.7 km = 1.7 My, Campus Center to the corner of Fulton & Addison
.....1.50 MLY, NGC 6822 Barnard's Galaxy (Local Group)
.....1.70 MLY, 2044-13 Aquarius Dwarf Galaxy (Local Group)

.....1.75 My, age of East Molokai volcano, Island of Molokai
.....1.84 My, age of West Molokai volcano, Island of Molokai
.....2 My, time since the origin of Homo habilis and the beginning of the Pleistocene Epoch and the Quaternary Period


TERTIARY PERIOD, 2 My-65 My
2.1 km = 2.1 My, Campus Center to the corner of Riverside Drive and Fulton
.....2.25 MLY, M 32 Galaxy (NGC 221, Local Group)
.....2.38 MLY, M 31 Great Andromeda Galaxy (NGC 224, Local Group) [17]

.....2.6 My, age of East Oahu (Koolau) volcano, Island of Oahu
.....2.94 MLY, M 33 Galaxy (NGC 598, Local Group)
3.0 km = 3.0 My, distance on Fulton to the Los Angeles River = time since beginning of Nevadan Orogeny--uplift of Sierra Nevada
.....<3.26 MLY, edge of the Local Group of Galaxies
.....3.8 My, age of West Oahu (Waianae) volcano, Island of Oahu
.....4.0 My, time since the origin of Australopithecus
4.1 km = 4.1 My, corner of Cedros & Ventura Blvd in downtown Sherman Oaks
4.3 km = 4.3 My, Harvard School on Coldwater Canyon
5 km (3.11 mi) = 5 My, the I-405 bridge across Ventura Blvd = time since beginning of the Pliocene Epoch
.....5.22 MLY, NGC 1569 Galaxy (M 81 Group)
.....5.72 My, age of volcano, Island of Kauai
.....7.5 My, age of volcano, Island of Nihoa
.....7.83 MLY, NGC 404 Galaxy (Local Outlier)
.....9.78 MLY, NGC 253 Galaxy (Sculptor Group)

10.5 km = 10.5 My, Hollywood Bowl
.....11.3 My, age of volcano, Necker Island
11.7 km = 11.7 My, Royce Hall, UCLA
13.9 km = 13.9 My, La Brea Tar Pits
.....14.0 MLY (.001c) [18], M 94 (Canes Venatici I Group)


19.8 km = 19.8 My, Santa Monica Pier
.....>20 My, age of Midway Atoll
20.1 km = 20.1 My, Dodger Stadium
21.1 km = 21.1 My, Los Angeles, California
.....22.2 MLY (.002c), M 106 (Canes Venatici II Group)
.....25 My, time since the beginning of the Miocene Epoch
25.8 km = 25.8 My, Los Angeles International Airport
.....31.6 MLY (.003c), NGC 4274 Galaxy (Coma I Cluster)
.....[Edge of the Coma-Sculptor Cloud of Galaxies]


34.9 km = 34.9 My, Santa Anita Racetrack
36.4 km = 36.4 My, Redondo Beach
.....37 My, time since the beginning of the Oligocene Epoch
.....50.5 My, time since India collided with Asia, pushing up the Himalayas
51.9 km = 51.9 My, Buena Park
53.0 km = 53.0 My, Palmdale
.....54.8 MLY (.004c), M 87 Galaxy (Virgo Cluster of Galaxies) [19]
.....55 My, time since the beginning of the Eocene Epoch
57.0 km = 57.0 My, Camarillo
62.9 km = 62.9 My, Garden Grove
.....65 My, time since the beginning of the Paleocene Epoch, the Tertiary Period, and the Cenozoic Era

MESOZOIC ERA, 65 My-248 My
.....68.2 MLY (.006c), NGC 157 Galaxy (Telescopium-Grus Cloud)
69.3 km = 69.3 My, Huntington Beach
70.0 km = 70.0 My, Oxnard
72.0 km = 72.0 My, Ontario
75.4 km = 75.4 My, Costa Mesa
.....89.3 MLY (.007c), NGC 2577 Galaxy (Cancer-Leo Cloud)
.....100 My, time since the beginning of the Gulfian Age (Late Cretaceous)
100.2 km = 100.1 My, Mojave
103.1 km = 103.1 My, San Bernardino
104.0 km = 104.0 My, Carpinteria
.....106 MLY (.009c), NGC 474 Galaxy (Cetus-Aries Cloud)
135.2 km = 135.1 My, Isla Vista, California


.....144 My, time since the beginning of the Cretaceous Period
144.1 km = 144.1 My, Bakersfield, California
145.1 km = 145.1 My, Banning, California
.....149 MLY (.011c), Abell 1060 (Hydra I) Cluster [20]
.....185 My, age of oldest oceanic crust rocks of Earth
.....186 MLY (.014c), NGC 145 Galaxy
.....195.6 MLY, 1% of the Hubble Radius (c/H) [21]

204 km = 204 My, San Diego, California
204.0 km = 204.0 My, Santa Maria, California
.....208 My, time since the beginning of the Jurassic Period
210.0 km = 210.9 My, Indio, California
222 km = 222 My, Tijuana, Mexico

.....239 MLY (.018c), Abell 426 (Perseus) Cluster
.....248 My, time since the beginning of the Triassic Period and the Mesozoic Era

PALEOZOIC ERA, 590 My-248 My (= 367 mi-154 mi)
252.6 km = 252.6 My, Visalia, California
258.7 km = 258.7 My, Morro Bay
.....286 My, time since the beginning of the Permian Period
.....303 MLY (.023c .023) [22], Ab. 1656 (Coma Berenices) Cluster
311.5 km = 311.5 My, Fresno, California [318 km]
.....312 MLY (.016c), Abell 3627 (The Great Attractor?) [23]
357.1 km = 357.1 My, Needles, California
358.9 km = 358.9 My, Blythe, California
.....360 My, time since the beginning of the Carboniferous Period
371 km = 371 My, Las Vegas, Nevada
404.6 km = 404.6 My, Salinas, California
407.3 km = 407.3 My, Panorma Point, Yosemite Valley, California
.....408 My, time since the beginning of the Devonian Period
415.0 km = 415.0 My, Monterey, California
415.4 km = 415.4 My, Kingman, Arizona


425.7 km = 425.7 My, Lee Vining, California
.....432 MLY (.033c .034), Abell 2506 Cluster
.....438 My, time since the beginning of the Silurian Period
450.1 km = 450.1 My, Modesto, California
471.3 km = 471.3 My, San Jose, California
493.9 km = 493.9 My, Stockton, California
.....505 My, time since the beginning of the Ordovician Period
515.9 km = 515.9 My, San Mateo, California
.....542 MLY (.042c .043), Abell 76 Cluster
545 km = 545 My, San Francisco, California
545.5 km = 545.5 My, St. George, Utah
562.5 km = 562.5 My, Sacramento, California [555]

.....590 My, time since the beginning of the Cambrian Period, the Paleozoic Era, and the Phanerozoic Eon

PRECAMBRIAN TIME, PROTEROZOIC EON, 590 My-2.6 Gy
592.4 km = 592.4 My, Phoenix, Arizona [598]
.....600 My, time since formation of Pannotia Supercontinent
605 km = 605 My, Reno, Nevada
.....645 MLY (.033c .034), Abell 2506 Cluster
.....670 MLY (.051c .053), Abell 1377 (Ursa Major I) Cluster

724 km = 724 My, Tucson, Arizona
.....724 MLY (.037c .038), Abell 2151 Hercules Cluster
.....750 My, time since breakup of Rodinia Supercontinent
.....800 My, time since end of Grenville & Beltian Orogenies
.....821 MLY (.042c 0.043), Abell 76 Cluster
.....823 MLY (.063c .065), Abell 1452 Cluster

870.8 km = 870.8 My, Mt. Shasta Pk., California
896.4 km = 896.4 My, Gallup, New Mexico
.....900 My, time since beginning of Neoproterozoic Era
920 km = 920 My, Salt Lake City, Utah
.....940 MLY (.072c .075), Ab. 2065 (Corona Borealis) Cluster
991 km = 991 My, Guaymas, Mexico
.....997 MLY (.051c 0.053), Abell 1377 Ursa Major I Cluster


.....1.0 Gy, time since beginning of Grenville Orogeny; modern levels of oxygen in atmosphere
1068 km = 1.068 Gy, Boise, Idaho [1066]
1082 km = 1.082 Gy, Albuquerque, New Mexico [1076]
1144 km = 1.144 Gy, Santa Fe, New Mexico
1145 km = 1.145 Gy, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
1174 km = 1.174 Gy, Eugene, Oregon
.....1.2 Gy, time since beginning of Beltian Orogeny, since end of Mazatzal Orogeny
.....1.232 GLY (.063c 0.065), Abell 1452 Cluster
.....1.26 GLY (.097c .102), Abell 1346 Cluster

1311 km = 1.311 Gy, Portland, Oregon
1320 km = 1.320 Gy, Colorado Springs, Colorado
1330 km = 1.330 Gy, Chihuahua, Mexico
1340 km = 1.340 Gy, Denver, Colorado
.....1.4 Gy, time since the development of eukaryotic cells
.....1.408 GLY (.072c 0.075), Abell 2065 Corona Borealis Cluster
1423 km = 1.423 Gy, Cheyenne, Wyoming
1483 km = 1.483 Gy, Helena, Montana
.....1.5 Gy, time since beginning of Mazatzal Orogeny
1522 km = 1.522 Gy, Amarillo, Texas
1527 km = 1.527 Gy, Seattle, Washington
1542 km = 1.542 Gy, Billings, Montana
.....1.6 Gy, time since end of Penokean & Churchill Orogenies, since beginning of Mesoproterozoic Era
1688 km = 1.688 Gy, Mazatalan, Mexico
1723 km = 1.723 Gy, Vancouver, Canada
.....1.897 GLY (.097c 0.102), Abell 1346 Cluster
.....1.9 Gy, time since beginning of Penokean & Churchill Orogenies
1904 km = 1.904 Gy, Calgary, Canada
1911 km = 1.911 Gy, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
1917 km = 1.917 Gy, Pierre, South Dakota
1936 km = 1.936 Gy, Witchita, Kansas
1951 km = 1.951 Gy, San Antonio, Texas
.....1.956 GLY, 10% of Hubble Radius (c/H) [24]
1962 km = 1.962 Gy, Fort Worth, Texas
1978 km = 1.978 Gy, Monterry, Mexico
2006 km = 2.006 Gy, Dallas, Texas
2042 km = 2.042 Gy, Bismark, North Dakota [2038]
2053 km = 2.053 Gy, Tulsa, Oklahoma
2108 km = 2.108 Gy, Guadalajara, Mexico
2116 km = 2.116 Gy, Omaha, Nebraska
2129 km = 2.129 Gy, Regina, Canada
2192 km = 2.192 Gy, Kansas City, Missouri [2187]
2195 km = 2.195 Gy, Edmonton, Canada
2201 km = 2.201 Gy, Saskatoon, Canada
2207 km = 2.207 Gy, Matamoros, Mexico
2222 km = 2.222 Gy, Houston, Texas
.....2.3 Gy, time since end of Algoman Orogeny; beginning of oxygenation of atmosphere
2319 km = 2.319 Gy, Des Moines, Iowa
2387 km = 2.387 Gy, Little Rock, Arkansas
2411 km = 2.411 Gy, Tampico, Mexico
2458 km = 2.458 Gy, Minneapolis, Minnesota
2464 km = 2.464 Gy, Winnipeg, Canada
.....2.5 Gy, time since Slave Orogeny
2515 km = 2.515 Gy, Mexico City, Mexico
.....2.542 GLY (.130c 0.140), Boötes Cluster
2562 km = 2.562 Gy, St. Louis, Missouri
2592 km = 2.592 Gy, Memphis, Tennessee
.....2.6 Gy, time since the beginning of the Proterozoic (Cryptozoic) Eon, the Paleoproterozoic Era, & the Algoman Orogeny, Abundant Stromatolites

ARCHAEAN EON [25], 2.6 Gy-3.9 Gy
2623 km = 2.623 Gy, Jackson, Mississippi
2661 km = 2.661 Gy, Acapulco, Mexico
2705 km = 2.705 Gy, Veracruz, Mexico
2707 km = 2.707 Gy, New Orleans, Lousiana
2796 km = 2.796 Gy, Chicago, Illinois
2808 km = 2.808 Gy, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
2813 km = 2.813 Gy, Clipperton Is. (Fr.)
.....2.855 GLY (.146c 0.158), 3C 273 Quasar [26]
2869 km = 2.869 Gy, Mobile, Alabama
2869 km = 2.869 Gy, Nashville, Tennessee
2886 km = 2.886 Gy, Thunder Bay, Canada
2908 km = 2.908 Gy, Birmingham, Albama
2911 km = 2.911 Gy, Indianapolis, Indiana
2935 km = 2.935 Gy, Juneau, Alaska
2945 km = 2.945 Gy, Louisville, Kentucky
.....3.0 Gy, time since end of Saganagan Orogeny
3018 km = 3.018 Gy, Chattanooga, Tennessee
3056 km = 3.056 Gy, Cincinatti, Ohio
3082 km = 3.082 Gy, Dayton, Ohio
3095 km = 3.095 Gy, Columbus, Georgia
3121 km = 3.121 Gy, Knoxville, Tennessee
3123 km = 3.123 Gy, Atlanta, Georgia
3152 km = 3.152 Gy, Lansing, Michigan
3178 km = 3.178 Gy, Merida, Mexico
3185 km = 3.185 Gy, Columbus, Ohio
3196 km = 3.196 Gy, Detroit, Michigan
3196 km = 3.196 Gy, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
.....3.3 Gy, time since beginning of Saganagan Orogeny
3306 km = 3.306 Gy, Cleveland, Ohio
3313 km = 3.313 Gy, Akron, Ohio
3380 km = 3.380 Gy, Wheeling, West Virginia
3414 km = 3.414 Gy, Sudbury, Canada
3423 km = 3.423 Gy, Charlotte, North Carolina
3425 km = 3.425 Gy, Columbia, South Carolina
3428 km = 3.428 Gy, Niagara Falls, New York
3439 km = 3.439 Gy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
3460 km = 3.460 Gy, Jacksonville, Florida
3461 km = 3.461 Gy, Guatemala
3461 km = 3.461 Gy, Savannah, Georgia
3482 km = 3.482 Gy, Belize
3499 km = 3.499 Gy, Toronto, Canada
.....3.5 Gy, time since oldest Stromatolites
3535 km = 3.535 Gy, Buffalo, New York
3556 km = 3.556 Gy, Charleston, South Carolina
3560 km = 3.560 Gy, Orlando, Florida
3641 km = 3.641 Gy, Rochester, New York
3684 km = 3.684 Gy, Richmond, Virginia
3700 km = 3.700 Gy, Havana, Cuba
3702 km = 3.702 Gy, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
3704 km = 3.704 Gy, Washington, DC


3731 km = 3.731 Gy, El Salvador
3735 km = 3.735 Gy, Baltimore, Maryland
3747 km = 3.747 Gy, Anchorage, Alaska
3754 km = 3.754 Gy, Syracuse, New York
3771 km = 3.771 Gy, Miami, Florida
3791 km = 3.791 Gy, Norfolk, Virginia
3797 km = 3.797 Gy, Scranton, Pennsylvania
3798 km = 3.798 Gy, Ottawa, Canada
3825 km = 3.825 Gy, Wilmington, Delaware
3846 km = 3.846 Gy, Honduras
3856 km = 3.856 Gy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
3897 km = 3.897 Gy, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
3924 km = 3.924 Gy, Cienfuegos, Cuba
3940 km = 3.940 Gy, Fairbanks, Alaska [3923]
3944 km = 3.944 Gy, New York, New York
3958 km = 3.958 Gy, Albany, New York
.....3.96 Gy, time since oldest contintental rocks on Earth (old information)

HADEAN EON [27], 3.9 Gy-5.0/4.6 Gy
3969 km = 3.969 Gy, Montreal, Quebec
.....3.970 GLY (.203c 0.229), Hydra II Cluster
3989 km = 3.989 Gy, Burlington, Vermont
4007 km = 4.007 Gy, Bridgeport, Connecticut
4009 km = 4.009 Gy, Bahamas
4031 km = 4.031 Gy, New Haven, Connecticut
4044 km = 4.044 Gy, Hartford, Connecticut
4051 km = 4.051 Gy, Springfield, Massachusetts
4065 km = 4.065 Gy, Nicaragua
4068 km = 4.068 Gy, Cayman Is.
4111 km = 4.111 Gy, Honolulu, Hawaii
4115 km = 4.115 Gy, Worcester, Massachusetts
4136 km = 4.136 Gy, Manchester, New Hampshire
4152 km = 4.152 Gy, Providence, Rhode Island
4160 km = 4.160 Gy, Quebec, Quebec
4181 km = 4.181 Gy, Boston, Massachusetts
4230 km = 4.230 Gy, Portland, Maine
.....4.28 Gy, time since oldest contintental rocks on Earth (Porpoise Cove, Canada)
.....4.3-4.1 Gy, time since the emergence of continents
.....4.381 GLY (.224c 0.256), 3C 79 Radio Galaxy
4390 km = 4.390 Gy, San Andres (Colum.)
.....4.44-4.41 Gy, time since formation of atmosphere
4409 km = 4.409 Gy, Costa Rica
4414 km = 4.414 Gy, Bajo Nuevo (Colum.)
4451 km = 4.451 Gy, Jamaica
.....4.498 GLY (.230c 0.264), 3C 323.1 Quasar
4512 km = 4.512 Gy, Guantanamo Bay (U.S.)
4537 km = 4.537 Gy, Cocos Is.
4563 km = 4.563 Gy, St. John, New Brunswick, Canada
.....4.6 Gy, lower limit for the time since the origin of the Earth and the Moon


4610 km = 4.610 Gy, Nome, Alaska
4626 km = 4.626 Gy, Navassa Is. (U.S.)
4755 km = 4.755 Gy, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
4757 km = 4.757 Gy, Turks & Caicos Is.
4796 km = 4.796 Gy, Galapagos Is. (Ecuador)
4802 km = 4.802 Gy, Panama
4865 km = 4.865 Gy, Port-Au-Prince, Haiti
4960 km = 4.960 Gy, Bermuda
4991 km = 4.991 Gy, St. Paul Island, Canada
5065 km = 5.065 Gy, Malpelo Is. (Colum.)
5066 km = 5.066 Gy, Sable Island, Canada
5074 km = 5.074 Gy, Dominican Republic
.....5 Gy, upper limit for the time since the origin of the Earth and the Moon, beginning of Hadean Eon, approximate origin of the Sun

PRE-HADEAN TIME, COSMOLOGICAL TIME, 5.0 Gy-19.556 Gy
5088 km = 5.088 Gy, Cartegena, Columbia
5177 km = 5.177 Gy, Barranquila, Columbia
5299 km = 5.299 Gy, St. Pierre (Fr.)
5364 km = 5.364 Gy, East Kiribati
5371 km = 5.371 Gy, Medellin, Columbia
5377 km = 5.377 Gy, Thule, Greenland
5400 km = 5.400 Gy, Maracaibo, Venezuela
5430 km = 5.430 Gy, Desecheo Is. (U.S.)
5430 km = 5.430 Gy, Puerto Rico
5436 km = 5.436 Gy, Johnston Is. (U.S.)
5451 km = 5.451 Gy, Kingman Reef (U.S.)
5471 km = 5.471 Gy, Palmyra Is. (U.S.)
5514 km = 5.514 Gy, Cali, Columbia
5545 km = 5.545 Gy, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada
5546 km = 5.546 Gy, Curacao, Netherlands Antilles
5561 km = 5.561 Gy, Virgin Is. (U.S.)
5577 km = 5.577 Gy, British Virgin Islands
5578 km = 5.578 Gy, Midway Is. (U.S.)
5628 km = 5.628 Gy, Bogata, Columbia
5641 km = 5.641 Gy, Quito, Ecuador
5655 km = 5.655 Gy, Barquisimto, Venezuela
5656 km = 5.656 Gy, Kure Is. (U.S.)
5687 km = 5.687 Gy, Aves Is.
5731 km = 5.731 Gy, Anguilla
5742 km = 5.742 Gy, St. Martin Is.
5742 km = 5.742 Gy, Saint Martin (Fr.)
5797 km = 5.797 Gy, Nevis, St. Kitts
5827 km = 5.827 Gy, Caracas, Venezuela
5862 km = 5.862 Gy, Barbuda, Antigua
5888 km = 5.888 Gy, Montserrat
.....5.925 GLY (.303c 0.367), 3C 48 Quasar
5964 km = 5.964 Gy, Guadeloupe (Fr.)
6066 km = 6.066 Gy, Dominica
6125 km = 6.125 Gy, Martinique (Fr.)
6172 km = 6.172 Gy, St. Lucia
6202 km = 6.202 Gy, St. Vincent
6210 km = 6.210 Gy, Grenada
6335 km = 6.335 Gy, Tinidad & Tobago
6430 km = 6.430 Gy, Barbados
6594 km = 6.594 Gy, French Polynesia


6687 km = 6.687 Gy, Pitcairn Island (Brit.)
6749 km = 6.749 Gy, Lima, Peru
6754 km = 6.754 Gy, Utopia
6763 km = 6.763 Gy, Guyana
6864 km = 6.864 Gy, Easter Island (Chile)
6966 km = 6.966 Gy, Phoenix Is. (U.S.)
6974 km = 6.974 Gy, Reykavik, Iceland
.....7.079 GLY (.362c 0.461), 3C 295 Radio Galaxy
7112 km = 7.112 Gy, Jan Mayen
7182 km = 7.182 Gy, Surinam
7198 km = 7.198 Gy, Franz Josef Land Is. (Rus.)
7217 km = 7.217 Gy, Cuzco, Peru
7237 km = 7.237 Gy, Svalbard
7323 km = 7.323 Gy, Tokelaus
7365 km = 7.365 Gy, Manaus, Brazil
7463 km = 7.463 Gy, Wake Is. (U.S.)
7492 km = 7.492 Gy, Central Kiribati
7501 km = 7.501 Gy, Cayenne, French Guiana
7659 km = 7.659 Gy, American Samoa
7697 km = 7.697 Gy, Faeroe Is.
7708 km = 7.708 Gy, Western Samoa
7745 km = 7.745 Gy, La Paz, Bolivia
7747 km = 7.747 Gy, Kamaran Island
7760 km = 7.760 Gy, Azores (Port.)
7844 km = 7.844 Gy, San Felix Is.
.....8.018 GLY (.410c 0.545), 3C 147 Quasar
8031 km = 8.031 Gy, Niue
8115 km = 8.115 Gy, Inverness, Scotland
8134 km = 8.134 Gy, Londonderry, N. Ireland
8148 km = 8.148 Gy, Marshall Is. (U.S.)
8150 km = 8.150 Gy, Sucre, Bolivia
8176 km = 8.176 Gy, Wallis & Futuna Is. (Fr.)
8179 km = 8.179 Gy, Antofagasta, Chile
8188 km = 8.188 Gy, Shannon, Ireland
8201 km = 8.201 Gy, West Kiribati
8227 km = 8.227 Gy, Sapporo, Japan
8229 km = 8.229 Gy, Glasgow, Scotland
8243 km = 8.243 Gy, Belfast, N. Ireland
8244 km = 8.244 Gy, Trondheim, Norway
8250 km = 8.250 Gy, Aberdeen, Scotland
8265 km = 8.265 Gy, Belem, Brazil
8274 km = 8.274 Gy, Cork, Ireland
8287 km = 8.287 Gy, Tuvalu
8306 km = 8.306 Gy, Minami Torishima (Jp.)
8312 km = 8.312 Gy, Dublin, Ireland
8317 km = 8.317 Gy, Bergen, Norway
8327 km = 8.327 Gy, Tonga
8331 km = 8.331 Gy, Isle of Mann (Br.)
8415 km = 8.415 Gy, Caernarvon, Wales
8419 km = 8.419 Gy, Newcastle, England
8462 km = 8.462 Gy, Liverpool, England
8468 km = 8.468 Gy, Teesside, England
8497 km = 8.497 Gy, Manchester, England
8499 km = 8.499 Gy, Leeds, England
8539 km = 8.539 Gy, Swansea, Wales
8554 km = 8.554 Gy, Oslo, Norway
8590 km = 8.590 Gy, Birmingham, England
8618 km = 8.618 Gy, Plymouth, England
8620 km = 8.620 Gy, Nauru
8666 km = 8.666 Gy, Oxford, England
.....8.707 GLY (.445c 0.614), 3C 95 Quasar
8709 km = 8.709 Gy, Cambridge, England
8744 km = 8.744 Gy, Brest, France
8750 km = 8.750 Gy, London, England
8787 km = 8.787 Gy, Tokyo, Japan
8788 km = 8.788 Gy, Goteberg, Sweden
8792 km = 8.792 Gy, Guernsey (Br.)
8797 km = 8.797 Gy, Fiji Is.
8806 km = 8.806 Gy, Market Reef
8814 km = 8.814 Gy, Jersey Is. (Br.)
8850 km = 8.850 Gy, Aland Is., Finland
8869 km = 8.869 Gy, Stockhom, Sweden
8915 km = 8.915 Gy, East Caroline Is.
8937 km = 8.937 Gy, Amsterdam, Netherlands
8949 km = 8.949 Gy, Madeira Is.
8982 km = 8.982 Gy, Lille, France
8986 km = 8.986 Gy, Porto, Protugal
8988 km = 8.988 Gy, Nantes, France
8991 km = 8.991 Gy, Copenhagen, Denmark
8991 km = 8.991 Gy, Juan Fernandez Is.
9006 km = 9.006 Gy, Helsinki, Finland
9016 km = 9.016 Gy, Malmo, Sweden
9021 km = 9.021 Gy, Santiago, Chile
9026 km = 9.026 Gy, Brussels, Belgium
9060 km = 9.060 Gy, Bremen, Germany
9061 km = 9.061 Gy, Coimbra, Portugal
9069 km = 9.069 Gy, Mendoza, Argentina
9071 km = 9.071 Gy, Hamburg, Germany
9080 km = 9.080 Gy, Paris, France
9123 km = 9.123 Gy, Lisbon, Portugal
9128 km = 9.128 Gy, Kyoto, Japan
9140 km = 9.140 Gy, Estonia
9148 km = 9.148 Gy, Ogasawara (Jp.)
9161 km = 9.161 Gy, St. Petersburg, Russia
9162 km = 9.162 Gy, Bonn, Germany
9192 km = 9.192 Gy, Bilbao, Spain
9198 km = 9.198 Gy, Asuncion, Paraguay
9198 km = 9.198 Gy, Luxembourg
9217 km = 9.217 Gy, Bordeaux, France
.....9.242 GLY (.473c 0.671), 3C 37 Quasar
9255 km = 9.255 Gy, Latvia
9275 km = 9.275 Gy, Brasilia, Brazil
9296 km = 9.296 Gy, Frankfort, Germany
9305 km = 9.305 Gy, Berlin, Germany
9311 km = 9.311 Gy, Fortaleza, Brazil
9336 km = 9.336 Gy, Mannheim, Germany
9353 km = 9.353 Gy, Madrid, Spain
9371 km = 9.371 Gy, Strasbourg, France
9376 km = 9.376 Gy, Kaliningradsk, Russia
9401 km = 9.401 Gy, Canary Is. (Sp.)
9405 km = 9.405 Gy, Cape Verde Is. (Sp.)
9418 km = 9.418 Gy, Lithuania
9425 km = 9.425 Gy, Seville, Spain
9428 km = 9.428 Gy, Stuttgart, Germany
9437 km = 9.437 Gy, Toulouse, France
9444 km = 9.444 Gy, Marianas Is.
9449 km = 9.449 Gy, Lyon, France
9449 km = 9.449 Gy, Dresden, Germany
9470 km = 9.470 Gy, Cordoba, Spain
9481 km = 9.481 Gy, ITU Geneva
9491 km = 9.491 Gy, Geneva, Switzerland
9512 km = 9.512 Gy, Kermadec Is.
9522 km = 9.522 Gy, Andorra
9524 km = 9.524 Gy, Zurich, Switzerland
9534 km = 9.534 Gy, Luzern, Switzerland
9562 km = 9.562 Gy, Seoul, Korea
9567 km = 9.567 Gy, Czechoslovakia
9573 km = 9.573 Gy, Gibraltar (Br.)
9573 km = 9.573 Gy, New Hebribes
9580 km = 9.580 Gy, Ceuta & Melilla (Sp.)
9589 km = 9.589 Gy, Casablanca, Morocco
9594 km = 9.594 Gy, Liechtenstein
9602 km = 9.602 Gy, Munich, Germany
9628 km = 9.628 Gy, Warsaw, Poland
9635 km = 9.635 Gy, Barcelona, Spain
9636 km = 9.636 Gy, Valencia, Spain
9668 km = 9.668 Gy, Torino, Italy
.....9.675 GLY (.495c 0.720), 4C 19.44 Quasar
9675 km = 9.675 Gy, Marseille, France
9679 km = 9.679 Gy, Marrakech, Morocco
9699 km = 9.699 Gy, Milan, Italy
9699 km = 9.699 Gy, Nagasaki, Japan
9730 km = 9.730 Gy, Fez, Morocco
9740 km = 9.740 Gy, Corboda, Argentina
9749 km = 9.749 Gy, Monaco
9754 km = 9.754 Gy, Nice, France
9786 km = 9.786 Gy, Genova, Italy
9788 km = 9.788 Gy, Guam Is. (U.S.)
9806 km = 9.806 Gy, Vienna, Austria
9808 km = 9.808 Gy, Moscow, Russia
9822 km = 9.822 Gy, Ulan Bator, Mongolia
9839 km = 9.839 Gy, Curitiba, Brazil
9846 km = 9.846 Gy, Balearic Is. (Sp.)
9858 km = 9.858 Gy, Buenos Ares, Argentina
9862 km = 9.862 Gy, North Cook Is.
9868 km = 9.868 Gy, Venezia, Italy
9873 km = 9.873 Gy, Fernando de Noronha, Brazil
9895 km = 9.895 Gy, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
9896 km = 9.896 Gy, Bologna, Italy
9901 km = 9.901 Gy, Recife, Brazil
9902 km = 9.902 Gy, St. Peter & Paul Rocks
9905 km = 9.905 Gy, Oran, Algeria
9907 km = 9.907 Gy, Salvador, Brazil
9919 km = 9.919 Gy, Sao Paulo, Brazil
9942 km = 9.942 Gy, Solomon Islands
9951 km = 9.951 Gy, Firenze, Italy
9967 km = 9.967 Gy, Mauritania
9985 km = 9.985 Gy, Budapest, Hungary
9987 km = 9.987 Gy, Corsica (Fr.)
9999 km = 9.999 Gy, San Marino
10008 km = 10.008 Gy, Zagreb, Croatia
10021 km = 10.021 Gy, Peking, China
10030 km = 10.030 Gy, Porto Alegre, Brazil
10047 km = 10.047 Gy, Montevideo, Uruguay
.....10.052 GLY (.514c 0.765), 3C 39 Quasar
10057 km = 10.057 Gy, New Caledonia (Fr.)
10058 km = 10.058 Gy, Algiers, Algeria
10066 km = 10.066 Gy, Dakar, Senegal
10080 km = 10.080 Gy, Okino Torishima (Jp.)
10146 km = 10.146 Gy, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
10155 km = 10.155 Gy, Sardina (It.)
10181 km = 10.181 Gy, Vatican City
10181 km = 10.181 Gy, Roma, Italy
10299 km = 10.299 Gy, Belgrade, Serbia
10344 km = 10.344 Gy, Annaba, Algeria
10356 km = 10.356 Gy, Gambia
10365 km = 10.365 Gy, Napoli, Italy
10377 km = 10.377 Gy, Romania
10379 km = 10.379 Gy, Ukraine
10407 km = 10.407 Gy, Shangai, China
10414 km = 10.414 Gy, Moldavia
10421 km = 10.421 Gy, West Caroline Is.
10431 km = 10.431 Gy, Chatham Is. (N.Z.)
10432 km = 10.432 Gy, Norfolk Island (Aus.)
10454 km = 10.454 Gy, Guinea-Bissau
10494 km = 10.494 Gy, Auckland, New Zealand
10499 km = 10.499 Gy, South Cook Is.
10560 km = 10.560 Gy, Palermo, Italy
10605 km = 10.605 Gy, Skopje, Macedonia
10630 km = 10.630 Gy, Albania
10657 km = 10.657 Gy, Bulgaria
10663 km = 10.663 Gy, Rio Gallegos, Argentina
10682 km = 10.682 Gy, Kazakhistan
.....10.682 GLY (.546c 0.846), 3C 179 Quasar
10687 km = 10.687 Gy, Tunisia
10707 km = 10.707 Gy, Mellish Reef (Aus.)
10722 km = 10.722 Gy, Punta Arenas, Chile
10795 km = 10.795 Gy, Wellington, New Zealand
10803 km = 10.803 Gy, Thessaloniki, Greece
10814 km = 10.814 Gy, Malta
.....10.873 GLY (.556c 0.871), 3C 196 Quasar
10885 km = 10.885 Gy, Tapei, Taiwan
10898 km = 10.898 Gy, Mt. Athos, Greece
10949 km = 10.949 Gy, Sierra Leone
10995 km = 10.995 Gy, Tipoli, Libya
11000 km = 11.000 Gy, Papua New Guinea
11009 km = 11.009 Gy, Istanbul, Turkey
11019 km = 11.019 Gy, Bamako, Mali
11024 km = 11.024 Gy, Guinea
11081 km = 11.081 Gy, Athens, Greece
11090 km = 11.090 Gy, Christchurch, New Zealand
.....11.108 GLY (.568c 0.905), 3C 309.1 Quasar
11112 km = 11.112 Gy, Falkland Is. (Brit.)
11150 km = 11.150 Gy, Willis Island (Aus.)
11184 km = 11.184 Gy, Trindade
11223 km = 11.223 Gy, Ankara, Turkey
11298 km = 11.298 Gy, Lord Howe Is. (Aus.)
11303 km = 11.303 Gy, Liberia
11329 km = 11.329 Gy, Georgia
11427 km = 11.427 Gy, Crete (Gr.)
11435 km = 11.435 Gy, South Shetland Is. (Brit.)
11452 km = 11.452 Gy, Benghazi, Libya
11498 km = 11.498 Gy, Kirshizistan
11537 km = 11.537 Gy, Uzbekistan
11550 km = 11.550 Gy, Ivory Coast
11551 km = 11.551 Gy, Brisbane, Australia
11587 km = 11.587 Gy, Armenia
11589 km = 11.589 Gy, Azerbaijan
11613 km = 11.613 Gy, Upper Volta
11624 km = 11.624 Gy, Canton, China
11628 km = 11.628 Gy, Hong Kong (Brit.)
11670 km = 11.670 Gy, Macao (Port.)
11713 km = 11.713 Gy, Manila, Philippines
11762 km = 11.762 Gy, Cyprus
11795 km = 11.795 Gy, Ascension Is. (Br.)
11809 km = 11.809 Gy, Dodecanese Is. (Gr.)
11811 km = 11.811 Gy, Turkmenistan
11869 km = 11.869 Gy, Tadzhikistan
11875 km = 11.875 Gy, Davao, Philippines
11892 km = 11.892 Gy, Beirut, Lebanon
11926 km = 11.926 Gy, Israel
11936 km = 11.936 Gy, Ghana
11956 km = 11.956 Gy, Auckland & Campbell, New Zealand
.....11.968 GLY (.612c 1.037), 3C 2 Quasar
12030 km = 12.030 Gy, Damascus, Syria
12068 km = 12.068 Gy, Togo
12073 km = 12.073 Gy, Sydney, Australia
12178 km = 12.178 Gy, Amman, Jordan
12179 km = 12.179 Gy, Tehran, Iran
12192 km = 12.192 Gy, Cairo, Egypt
12215 km = 12.215 Gy, Niger
12302 km = 12.302 Gy, Canberra, Australia
12331 km = 12.331 Gy, Kabul, Afghanistan
12353 km = 12.353 Gy, Iraq
12408 km = 12.408 Gy, South Orkney Is. (Brit.)
12410 km = 12.410 Gy, Kano, Nigeria
12422 km = 12.422 Gy, Lagos, Nigeria
12503 km = 12.503 Gy, Bhutan
12523 km = 12.523 Gy, South Georgia Is. (Brit.)
12571 km = 12.571 Gy, Lahore, Pakistan
12619 km = 12.619 Gy, Benin
12633 km = 12.633 Gy, Laos
12662 km = 12.662 Gy, Macquarie Island (Aus.)
12688 km = 12.688 Gy, Katmandu, Nepal
12749 km = 12.749 Gy, Melbourne, Australia
12774 km = 12.774 Gy, Kuwait
12794 km = 12.794 Gy, Saudi-Iraqi Neutral Zone
12842 km = 12.842 Gy, Shiraz, Iran
12846 km = 12.846 Gy, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
12854 km = 12.854 Gy, Aswan, Egypt
12890 km = 12.890 Gy, Spratly Is.
12995 km = 12.995 Gy, Brunei
13007 km = 13.007 Gy, Delhi, India
13016 km = 13.016 Gy, Cambodia
13019 km = 13.019 Gy, Alice Springs, Australia
.....13.037 GLY (.666c), 2/3 Hubble Radius (c/H), Limit of Closed Universes

OPEN UNIVERSES [28]
.....13.044 GLY (.667c 1.238), 3C 68.1 Quasar
13054 km = 13.054 Gy, Chad
13059 km = 13.059 Gy, St. Helena
13086 km = 13.086 Gy, Calcutta, India
13098 km = 13.098 Gy, Bangladesh
13111 km = 13.111 Gy, Saigon, Vietnam
13128 km = 13.128 Gy, Sao Tome
13147 km = 13.147 Gy, Adelaide, Australia
13151 km = 13.151 Gy, Cameroon
13170 km = 13.170 Gy, Annobon
13189 km = 13.189 Gy, Bahrain
13205 km = 13.205 Gy, Jabal at Tair, Abu Ail
13258 km = 13.258 Gy, South Sandwich Is. (Brit.)
13263 km = 13.263 Gy, Rangoon, Burma
13278 km = 13.278 Gy, Bangkok, Thailand
13282 km = 13.282 Gy, Qatar
13320 km = 13.320 Gy, Eastern Malaysia
13330 km = 13.330 Gy, Equatorial Guinea
13384 km = 13.384 Gy, Antarctica
13401 km = 13.401 Gy, Saudi Arabia
13424 km = 13.424 Gy, Karachi, Pakistan
13428 km = 13.428 Gy, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
13494 km = 13.494 Gy, Tristan & Gough Is. (Br.)
13518 km = 13.518 Gy, United Arab Emirates
13590 km = 13.590 Gy, Gabon
13674 km = 13.674 Gy, Khartoum, Sudan
13781 km = 13.781 Gy, Central African Republic
13852 km = 13.852 Gy, Andaman & Nicobar Is. (Ind.)
13929 km = 13.929 Gy, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia
13954 km = 13.954 Gy, Oman
13972 km = 13.972 Gy, Congo
13975 km = 13.975 Gy, Bombay, India
.....14002 MLY (.716c 1.459), 3C 43 Quasar
14009 km = 14.009 Gy, Hyderabad, India
14096 km = 14.096 Gy, Singapore
14286 km = 14.286 Gy, Yemen
14399 km = 14.399 Gy, Madras, India
14417 km = 14.417 Gy, Jakarta, Indonesia
14417 km = 14.417 Gy, Bali, Indonesia
14558 km = 14.558 Gy, Djibouti (Fr.)
14564 km = 14.564 Gy, Zaire
14633 km = 14.633 Gy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
.....14706 MLY (.752c 1.659), 3C 280.1 Quasar
14750 km = 14.750 Gy, Southern Sudan
14825 km = 14.825 Gy, Christmas Is. (Aus.)
14852 km = 14.852 Gy, Laccadive Is. (Ind.)
14933 km = 14.933 Gy, Sri Lanka
14969 km = 14.969 Gy, Angola
15008 km = 15.008 Gy, Perth, Australia
15120 km = 15.120 Gy, Uganda
15130 km = 15.130 Gy, Rwanda
15259 km = 15.259 Gy, Burundi
15506 km = 15.506 Gy, Namibia
15535 km = 15.535 Gy, Nairobi, Kenya
.....15547 MLY (.795c 1.956), 3C 191 Quasar
15568 km = 15.568 Gy, Somalia
15609 km = 15.609 Gy, Maldive Is.
.....15664 MLY (.801c 2.012), 3C 9 Quasar
15682 km = 15.682 Gy, Tanzania
15682 km = 15.682 Gy, Cocos Is. (Aus.)
.....15782 MLY (.807c 2.064), PHL 1305 Quasar
15892 km = 15.892 Gy, Zambia
16068 km = 16.068 Gy, Cape Town, South Africa
.....16114 MLY (.824c 2.223), PHL 8462 Quasar
16127 km = 16.127 Gy, Zanzibar, Tanzania
16377 km = 16.377 Gy, Malawi
16422 km = 16.422 Gy, Gaborone, Bostwana
16485 km = 16.485 Gy, Kimberley, South Africa
16625 km = 16.625 Gy, Zimbabwe
16646 km = 16.646 Gy, Seychelles
16651 km = 16.651 Gy, Chagos
16669 km = 16.669 Gy, Johannesburg, South Africa
16823 km = 16.823 Gy, Lesotho
.....16877 MLY (.863c 2.69), PHL 957 Quasar
16994 km = 16.994 Gy, Comoros
17006 km = 17.006 Gy, Swaziland
17008 km = 17.008 Gy, Mozambique
17075 km = 17.075 Gy, Mayotte (Fr.)
17094 km = 17.094 Gy, Durban, South Africa
17097 km = 17.097 Gy, Glorioso Is. (Fr.)
17313 km = 17.313 Gy, Agalega & St. Brandon
17325 km = 17.325 Gy, Juan de Nova Is. (Fr.)
17583 km = 17.583 Gy, Marion Is.
17713 km = 17.713 Gy, Heard Island (Aus.)
.....17737 MLY (.907c 3.53), OQ 172 Quasar
17817 km = 17.817 Gy, Malagasy Republic
17838 km = 17.838 Gy, Tromelin Is. (Fr.)
.....17.933 GLY (.917c 3.80), 4C 41.17 Galaxy [29]
.....18.070 GLY (.924c 4.03), PC 0910+5625 Quasar
.....18.109 GLY (.926c 4.11), Q0000-26 Quasar

18345 km = 18.345 Gy, Kerguelen Is. (Fr.)
18384 km = 18.384 Gy, Rodriguez Is.
18412 km = 18.412 Gy, Mauritius
18436 km = 18.436 Gy, Reunion Is. (Fr.)
18479 km = 18.479 Gy, Crozet (Fr.)
18494 km = 18.494 Gy, Amsterdam-St. Paul Is. (Fr.)
.....19.556 My, Hubble Time, 19556 MLY (1.00c [infinite]), Hubble Radius [30]


20002 km = 20.002 Gy, Antipode (61.6 degrees East by 34.2 degrees South)


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Copyright (c) 1996, 1998, 2000, 2010, 2012 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved