The Mongol Khâns

Mongolian culture in most respects reflected the influence of China. For instance, there are Mongolian terms for the Chinese 60 year calendar cycle. On the other hand, significant other influences came into play. The writing system eventually adopted for Mongolian was the alphabet brought by Nestorian Christian missionaries into Central Asia, which was used to write other Altaic languages related to Mongolian, like Uighur and Manchu. This script is deficient in letters for vowels, which always made it an ambiguous way to write these languages. Under Soviet influence, Mongolian now is mostly written in the Cyrillic alphabet. In religion, Mongolia also went its own way, adopting the Vajrayana Buddhism, or Lamaism, of Tibet. This may have contributed to the military decline of Mongolia, since a large part of the population committed to monasticism does not make for anything like the nation of fierce warriors that stormed across Asia in the 13th century. Thus, Manchu China conquered Mongolia for the first time in its history in 1696. It remained part of China until 1911, when the fall of the Manchus enabled the Mongols, like the Tibetans, to assert their independence. The Chinese, however, enforced their claim to Mongolia by an invasion in 1919. This was successful, but with Soviet help the Chinese were driven out in 1921. Mongolian independence, at least from China, was henceforth under the protection of the Soviet Union. But this also, naturally, made Mongolia subject to Russian experiments in Communism. Stalin's collectivization of agriculture was extended to Mongolia, with the forced settlement of nomads. Many of them, consequently, moved to Chinese Inner Mongolia to escape. Since 1990, Mongolia, like other post-Soviet states, has been struggling to develop a normal life and government free of police state measures and Russian domination.

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Philosophy of History


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Philosophy of History

Map shows the conquests of Chingiz Khân as divided at his death among his four sons. Jochi, the eldest son had, however, already died; so his sector was actually divided between his own sons, Batu (the Blue Horde), Orda (the White Horde), and Shiban, later united into the Golden Horde, the most durable of the Mongol regimes. Tuli (Tolui), the youngest son, was given the homeland of Mongolia. And it was the sons of Tuli, after the conquest of Russia, who carried out the greatest subsequent conquests, of the Middle East and China.

The Great Khâns,
the Yüan Dynasty, ,
of China, 1206-1368
Chingiz Khân/Qaghan
Genghis Khan
T'ai Tsu
Great Khân,
Chin Empire attacked,
Qara-Khitaï overthrown,
Khawarizm Shâh thrown out
of Transoxania, 1219-1222;
Hsi-Hsia overthrown, 1226-1227
Ögedei Khân
T'ai Tsung
Khawarizm Shâh overthrown, 1231
Chin overthrown, 1230-1234
Töregene Khâtûn regent,
Güyük Khân
Ting Tsung
Oghul Ghaymish regent,
Möngke Khân
Hsien Tsung
Southern Sung invaded,
Qubilai Khân
Shih Tsu
Southern Sung conquered,
Temür Öljeytü Khân
Ch'eng Tsung
Qayshan Gülük
Wu Tsung
Jên Tsung
Suddhipala Gege'en
Ying Tsung
Tai-ting Ti
T'ien-shun Ti
Jijaghatu Toq-Temür
Wen Tsung
Qoshila Qutuqtu
Ming Tsung
Ning Tsung
Uqaghatu Qaghan
Hui Tsung,
Shun Ti
Mongols expelled from
China, 1368
Northern Yüan, , Dynasty, Mongolia
after the Yüan, 1368-1628
Biliktü Qaghan
Chao Tsung
Usaqal Qaghan
Engke Soriktu1389-1393
Gun Timur1400-1403
Oljei Timur1403-1411
Adai Qa'an1425-1438
Esen Toghan Tayisi1438-1440
Tayisung Qa'an1440-1452
Chinese Emperor captured at T'u-mu, 1449
Esen Tayisi1452-1455
Molon Khan Togus1452-1454
Maqa Kurkis1454-1463?
Bayan Mongke1467-1470
civil war, 1470-c.1485
Dayan Khan1479-1543
Altan Khan1543-1583
Devastating raids into China, 1550; converted to Buddhism by the Dalai Lama, 1578
rebellion, Mongolia breaks up
Kudeng Darayisun1547-1557
Tumen Jasaghtu1557-1592
Sechen Khan1592-1604
Ligdan Khan1604-1634
Senge Dugureng1583-1587
Ombo Khan?-1628
Manchurian conquest, 1628
Subadi Jasaghtu Khan1637-1650
conquest of Tibet, 1642
Norbu Bishireltu Khan1650-1657
Manchurian occupation, 1688-1691
Manchurian conquest, 1732
Complete Manchurian Conquest,
c.1696 (1628-1732)
Genghis Khan (Chingiz or Chinngis, Khân or Khagan) believed that he had been given the dominion of the whole world. Although the Mongols, as far as we know, didn't have a tradition of believing such a thing, Genghis launched a campaign that came closer than any other such effort in history to realizing its goal. What Genghis accomplished himself was mostly to absorb kingdoms in Central Asia that most people would not have heard of anyway, but his sons and grandsons accomplished the conquests of China, Russia, Korea, Iran, and Iraq -- just to mention the most famous places. The abolition of the
Islâmic Caliphate in Baghdad affected the whole subsequent history of Islâm. Devastating defeats were also inflicted on Poland, Hungary, and Turkey, but growing feuds between increasingly more estranged cousins began to divert energies from more distant permanent conquests. Sometimes, as in the invasions of Japan, extraordinary circumstances, in that case the "Divine Wind" (kami kaze) typhoons, foiled Mongol conquest. But the ultimate enemy of the Mongols was the Mongols themselves. Whereas the average length of a generation of European royalty from Charlemagne to Queen Elizabeth (about 40 generations) was nearly 30 years, the Mongol generations turned over in only about 20 years. The Chingizids tended to drink themselves to death; and once no longer centered on the steppe, they lost their military edge. Only the Golden Horde ("horde" from orda, "army") retained a steppe base and steppe culture, consequently lasting more than three centuries, rather than less than 90 years as with both the Ilkhâns in the Middle East or the Yüan Dynasty in China.

I had some problems with reconciling the Mongolian dates and names [The Mongols, David Morgan, Basil Blackwell, 1986, and The New Islamic Dynasties, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Edinburgh University Press, 1996, which do not give Chinese names] with the Chinese list of Yüan emperors [Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary, Harvard University Press, 1972, p. 1175, which does not give the Mongolian names]. This is now cleared up by Ann Paludan's Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors [Thames & Hudson, London, 1998, pp. 148-157]. Two Emperors did not reign long enough to be acknowledged by Chinese historians. Also, Chinese sources list Ming Tsung before Wen Tsung (or Wen Ti, in Mathews') because the second reign of the latter is counted. After Togus-Temür, I have only found a list of rulers for Mongolia in Bruce R. Gordon's Regnal Chronologies -- though Gordon actually doesn't list Togus-Temür, but only "Biliktu," with slightly different dates. Now I discover that "Biliktu" refers to the brother and predecessor of Togus-Temür, Ayushiridara, whose name I had not seen at all peviously but I now see attested in the Nihon Kodaishi Daijiten, or Dictionary of Ancient Japanese History, on CD-ROM [2006], which provides the genealogy, and at the Chinaknowledge website of Ulrich Theobald -- the word "Qaghan," proper Mongolian for "Khân," is used in titles given by Theobald. Gordon's "Usaqal" then turns out to be Togus-Temür himself.

Altan Khan looks like the last vigorous and effective Mongolian ruler, striking blows against China that deeply discomfited the Ming government. Yet rebellions began early in Altan Khan's reign that he was never able to put down; and his direct successors rulled a state (Tumed) that simply shared in the breakup of the country. Mongolia would no longer be a threat to China, but Manchuria would soon conquer China (1644-1683) and Mongolia (1628-1732) as well. The most effective of the fragmented kingdoms seems to be that of Khalka. Since Mongol authority was asserted over Tibet in 1642, I assume that the Khans of Khalka were responsible. This gave the Manchus a pretext for claiming authority over Tibet after their conquest of Mongolia.

As noted above, classical Mongolian was written in an alphabet ultimately derived from the Syriac alphabet brought by Nestorian missionaries, as transmitted by way of Uighur and adopted under Genghis Khân. This was actually a poor way to write Mongolian, since such alphabets do not represent vowels. As it happens, Qubilai Khân requested that the Tibetan 'Phags-pa, a nephew of the Mongol Regent of Tibet, develop an alphabetic writing system for Mongolian. The system he developed was made official and compulsory in 1269. Despite the inadequacies of the Uighur alphabet, the system of 'Phags-pa did not catch on. Official documents using it survive, but the older script survived and returned to dominance until the Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Communist Mongolia. With other post-Soviet states turning to traditional alphabets or the Latin alphabet, it would be a nice touch for Mongolia to revive the 'Phags-pa system.

The Chaghatayid or Jagataiïd
Khâns of Mughulistân
Qara Hülegü1244-1246
Yesü Möngke1246-1251
Orqina Khâtûn1252-1260
Mubârak Shâh1266
Ghiyâth adDîn
Buqa/Toqa Temür1272-1282
Du'a, Duwa, Tuvac.1282-1306
conquers domain of Qaidu, 1306
Esen Buqa1309-1320
Du'a Temür1326
'Alâ' adDîn
Yesün Temürc.1338-1342
Buyan Quli1358
Shâh Temür1359
Tughluq Temür1359-1363

The situation in Mughulistân (Turkistan and Sinkiang, including the Tarim Basin, in Central Asia) seems confused. Other sources ascribe a reign to Qaidu, son of the Great Khân Güyük; and grandson of the Great Khân Ögedey, but he is not listed by Bosworth's New Islamic Dynasties. At the same time, Bosworth lists Qara Hülegü as the son of Mö'eüken, who is listed as an otherwise unknown, to me, son of Chingiz [p.248]. Similarly, other sources affirm that Jagatai-ids return to power by 1309, but Bosworth's list takes no note of this and simply continues with descendants of Chaghatay and Mö'eüken. This is perplexing. The answer appears to be that Qaidu detached his own domain, to contest the Great Khânate, in the Dzungaria (Junggar) Basin and through part of Mongolia to the north-east, ruling from 1260/64-1301/03. He was succeeded by his son, Chapar, who briefly ruled 1301/03-1306. Chapar was defeated by the proper Chaghatayid Khân, Du'a, eliminating the division within Mughulistân.

This event is of independent interest, since Du'a's name also appears as Tuva, a name that apparently stuck in a small mountainous area north-east of the Altai Mountains. The Republic of Tuva (capital Kyzyl) was independent for a short period after the fall of the Russian Empire, before being conquered by the Bolsheviks. The Republic even issued stamps that came to the attention of the great physicist, and youthful stamp collector, Richard Feynman. The Tuva Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Russian Republic in the Soviet Union, claimed to contain the geographical center of the Continent of Asia, with a monument to mark the spot. It was also closed to foreigners. Nevertheless, Feynman spent the last few years of his life trying to arrange a trip there. Unfortunately, he died very shortly before permission for his visit arrived (1988). As with some other derivatives of Mongol states, we discover that the modern Tuvan language (Tuvinian) is actually more closely related to Turkish than to Mongolian.

The end of the Chaghatayids is as obscure as these other issues. Mughulistân is displaced from Transoxania by the Timurids, Uzbeks, and Kazakhs. In Sinkiang (Xinjiang), domains of the Turkic Uighurs took over until Manchu conquest in 1754-59.

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The Khâns of the Golden Horde
The Khâns of the Blue Horde
Russia conquered, 1236-1239; Europe invaded, 1239-1242; Poles & Teutonic Knights defeated at Liegnitz, Hungarians crushed at the River Sajó, April 1241; Hungary occupied, 1241-1242
Möngke Temür1267-1280
Töde Möngke1280-1287
Töle Buqa1287-1291
Muḥammad Özbeg1313-1341
Tînî Beg1341-1342
Jânî Beg1342-1357
Berdi Beg1357-1359
Period of anarchy, 1357-1380; union with White Horde, 1378
The Khâns of the Golden Horde
d. 1406
1378/1380, union of White Horde & Blue Horde into the Golden Horde; sacks Novgorod & Moscow, 1382; expelled from Saray by Tamerlane, 1395
Temür Qutlugh1395-1401
Shâdî Beg1401-1407
Pûlâd Khân1407-1410
Jalâl adDîn1412
Karîm Berdi1412-1414
Yeremferden ?1417-1419
Ulugh Muḥammad1419-1420,
of Kazan,
Dawlat Berdi1420-1422
Sayyid Aḥmad Ic.1433-1435
Küchük Muḥammadc.1435-1465
1480, Ivan III refuses tribute;
independence of Russia
Shaykh Aḥmad1481-1498,
Defeated and annexed by
the Khâns of the Crimea, 1502

The Khâns of the White Horde
Sâsibuqa ?1309-1315
Mubârak Khwâja1320-1344
Blue Horde,
Temür Malik1377
1378, union of White Horde & Blue Horde into the Golden Horde
Josef Stalin said that his best generals were "January and February." Indeed, the great invasions of Russia by
Napoleon and Hitler came to grief in great measure because of the harsh Russian winter. Napoleon lost much of his Grand Army in 1812 in a retreat from Moscow in the cold and the snow. Hitler was aware of Napoleon's failure, but he expected to conquer Russia before winter set in. However, Hitler got delayed by a campaign against Yugoslavia and then launched forces, not only towards Moscow, but against Leningrad and the Ukraine also. Thus, as the snow began to fall in 1941, the Germans had barely come within sight of Moscow. They weren't even prepared for winter. The men did not have winter clothing and the summer oil in the tanks actually froze.

In light of these events, it is chilling (as it were) to remember that the Mongols conquered Russia during the winter. The Mongols liked winter. Frozen rivers and marshes meant that they could ride right over barriers that in the spring or summer would have slowed them down. Their tough Central Asian ponies knew how to dig down through the snow to eat the frozen grass beneath. This all made for a terror unknown to the Russians before or since. What the Russians then called their Mongol conquers was the "Tartars" -- invaders come from Tartarus, the deepest part of Hell. However, this was a deliberate modification of the Persian word tâtâr, which just meant a kind of Turk, though the Mongols, of course, were not Turks. But then, as the Mongols appeared out of nowhere from the Steppe, arriving from origins far beyond the knowledge of Russians or Persians, no one really knew who they were or where they were from. To Europeans, they seemed like the Scourge of God.

Eventually, the Golden Horde weakened and broke up into the Khânates of Astrakhan, Kazan, and Crimea. Remnants of the Golden Horde passed in 1502 to the Crimea, which, as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire (as of 1475), held out the longest against Russian power. Thus, independent Hordes survived in Russia for three centuries, and the Crimea for more than two more. This original durability, far beyond the other Mongol Khânates, may be due to the fact that only the Golden Horde remained centered on the steppe. For so long as nomadic military tactics held an advantage, the Golden Horde benefited from it. The day of the nomad had to pass before the Russians gained the upper hand. Crimea survived thanks to the very non-nomadic power of the Ottomans. Russian expansion east would then not be through the steppe but in the Taiga, the dense forestland.

The map at right shows the situation in 1483. Moscow has just ceased paying tribute to the Golden Horde (1480). The successor Khanates to the Horde are already in place. As noted, the Crimea is already a vassal of the Ottomans. Although it would be the Crimean Khâns who finally overthrew the Horde, Astrakhan would acquire the lion's share of the remaining lands of the Horde. Timurids and the White Sheep (Aq Qoyunlu) Turks dominate the Middle East and Central Asia.

Note that Shiban, as a son of Jochi, originally had his own division of the Horde (an ulus, "patrimony"), as seen in the map above. When Toqtamısh moved west to unify the Golden Horde, the Shibanids expanded south and grew into the Khânate of the Özbegs or Uzbeks, perhaps named after the Khân of the Blue Horde, Muḥammad Özbeg (1313-1341). Thus, on the map of 1483, the Uzbeks have become conspicuous. Their line is given below, as their realm (and the Kazakhs) succeeded to most of Central Asia until the coming of the Russians. There was also another son of Jochi, Toqa Temür, who had descendants from who some later Khâns may have descended. This may have included the founder of the Golden Horde proper, Toqtamısh, whose parentage is uncertain.

For a long time I displayed nothing here on the descent of the White Horde or the Golden Horde. Now, however, this has been provided by a correspondent in the Netherlands, who organized information from a French genealogy site, with some reference to RootsWeb, where there is a discussion of the descent of Toqtamısh. I have revised some of this information, especially for the Golden Horde proper, on the basis of The New Islamic Dynasties, by Clifford Edmund Bosworth [Edinburgh University Press, 1996, p.252-254]. The Blue Horde and White Horde are shown together above at right, ending with Toqtamısh who unites them. Below are the Khâns of the Golden Horde. Some small differences of dates and names remain between the the genealogical diagrams and the tables of rulers above. I allow these to remain to indicate the certainties with the history -- one uncertainty is exactly when the Blue Horde was absorbed by Toqtamısh, variously given as 1378 and 1380. It is noteworthy that, according to Bosworth, the founders of the Khânates of Kazan and Astrakhan were rival cousins in the two Golden Horde lines descended from the Khâns of the White Horde. The Golden Horde itself, however, was ended by the unrelated Giray Khâns of the Crimea.

The Khâns of the Crimea
Ḥâjjî Giray I1449-1456
Ḥaydar Giray1456
Nûr Dawlat Giray1466-1467,
Mengli Giray1467-1474,
Vassals of the
Ottoman Empire, 1475;
conquest of Golden
, 1502
Muḥammad Giray I1514-1523
Ghâzî Giray I1523-1524
Sa'âdat Giray I1524-1532
Islâm Giray I1532
Ṣâḥîb Giray I1532-1551
Dawlat Giray I1551-1577
Muḥammad Giray II1577-1584
Islâm Giray II1584-1588
Ghâzî Giray II1588-1596,
Fatḥ Giray I1596
Toqtamısh Giray1608
Salâmat Giray I1608-1610
Muḥammad Giray III1610,
Jânî Beg Giray1610-1623,
'Inâyat Giray1635-1637
Bahâdur Giray I1637-1641
Muḥammad Giray IV1641-1644,
Islâm Giray III1644-1654
'Âdil Giray1666-1671
Salîm Giray I1671-1678,
Murâd Giray1678-1683
Ḥâjjî Giray II1683-1684
Sa'âdat Giray II1691
Ṣafâ' Giray1691-1692
Dawlat Giray II1699-1702,
Ghâzî Giray III1704-1707
Qaplan Giray I1707-1708,
Dawlat Giray III1716-1717
Sa'âdat Giray III1717-1724
Mengli Giray II1724-1730,
Fatḥ Giray II1736-1737
Salâmat Giray II1740-1743
Salîm Giray II1743-1748
Arslan Giray1748-1756,
Ḥalîm Giray1756-1758
Qırım Giray1758-1764,
Salîm Giray III1764-1767,
Maqṣûd Giray1767-1768,
Dawlat Giray IV1769,
Qaplan Giray II1769-1770
Ṣâḥîb Giray II1772-1775
Shâhîn Giray1777-1782,
Bahâdur II Giray1782-1783
1783, Russian annexation
by Catharine II the Great

The Khâns of Kazan
Ulugh Muḥammad1437-1445
Muḥammad Amîn1484-1485
Siberian Khân
'Abd alLaṭîf1496-1502
Shâh 'Alî
Khân of Qâsimov
Ṣâḥîb Giray1521-1524
Ṣafâ' Giray1524-1531,
Jân 'Alî1531-1533
Yâdigâr Muḥammad1552
1552, Russian conquest
by Ivan IV
The breakup of the Golden Horde resulted in a number of successor states, most importantly the Khânates of Kazan, the Crimea, and Astrakhan. The remnant domain of the Golden Horde was itself annexed by the Crimea in 1502. Otherwise, all would be faced with, and ultimately fall to, the growing power of Russia. The fall of Kazan and Astrakhan motivated Ivan IV to proclaim himself "Tsar of all the Russias." The Crimea would endure longer, becoming indeed the last of any of the Mongol Khânates. Its durability, however, was only due to the protection of the Ottomans. Before Russia could take the Crimea, it would have to defeat the Turks. That would not come until the 18th Century. Catherine the Great, not Ivan the Terrible, would finish off the last of the Mongols.

These lists are derived entirely from The New Islamic Dynasties, by Clifford Edmund Bosworth [Edinburgh University Press, 1996, pp.252-260].

The Khâns of Astrakhan
'Abd alKarîm1490-1504
Aq Köbek1532-1534
'Abd alRaḥmân1534-1538
Shaykh Ḥaydar1538-1541
1554, Russian conquest
by Ivan IV
Darwîsh 'AlîRussian vassal,
The connection of the Crimea to Turkey led to a significant moment in linguistic history. The
Imperial Ambassador to Constantinople, Bubecq (1560-1562), took down sixty words in an unusual language spoken by informants from the Crimea. The language turned out to be Gothic. Goths had been in the Crimea since the 3rd Century AD. It is fortunate that Bubecq was curious about the language, because there is otherwise no surviving evidence of it, and there are no Crimean Goths left now.

There are surviving Crimean Tartars. Stalin became suspicious that they had collaborated with the Germans in World War II, so he deported all of them to Siberia. They are back now, but still rather out of place in the area. They are thus as much living fossils of history as the 16th century Gothic speakers, and not at all comfortable with the annexation of the Crimea by Vladimir Putin. The Russians are back.

The Il Khâns
Middle East invaded,
conquered, 1255-1260;
Abbasid Caliph killed, 1258;
defeat by Mamlûks,
'Ain Jalut, 1260
Aḥmad Tegüder1282-1284
Maḥmûd Ghâzân1295-1304
Khudâbanda Öljeytü
Abû Sa'îd
'Alâ' adDunyâ wa dDîn
Arpa Ke'ün1335-1336
1338-1353, period of
several rival successor states,
like the Jalâyirids,
followed by the Timurids
The amount of harm that the Mongol conquest did to the Middle East cannot be calculated. It was bad enough for Islâm that the
Caliphate in Baghdad was destroyed, but at least a form of the Caliphate was soon continued in Cairo. The physical damage and neglect to Iraq, however, may have ruined foundations of civilization and prosperity that went back to the Sumerians. The capital of the Îlkhâns became Tabrîz. Iraq would never again be a center of great power, influence, or culture. Until the Fall of Constantinople, Cairo became the center of Islâm.
It may be that a serious effort to conquer Egypt was never launched by the Îlkhâns because the military resources of Mongolia, which had in part been directed at Europe under the Great Khân Ögedei and at the Middle East under Möngke (Hülegü's brother), were entirely drawn off by Qubilai (Hülegü's other brother) for the conquest of China. Certainly, the kind of sustained and punishing campaign that the Song had to face in China was never directed against the Mamlûks.

The Jalâyirids
Shaykh Ḥasan-i Buzurg Tâj ad-Dîn1340-1356
Shaykh Uways1356-1374
Ḥusayn I Jalâl ad-Dîn1374-1382
Sulṭân Aḥmad Ghiyâth ad-Dîn1382-1410
Shâh Walad1410-1411
Uways II1411-1421
Ḥusayn II1425-1532
Conquest by Qara Qoyunlu, 1432

The Qara Qoyunlu, or Black Sheep Turks
Bayram KhôjaVassal of Jalayirids,
Qara Muḥammad1380-1389
Independent, 1382
Qara Yûsufc.1390-1400,
Occupation by Tîmûr, 1400-1406
Jahân Shâh1439-1467
Timurid Vassal until 1449
Ḥasan 'Alî1467-1469
Abû Yûsuf1469
Conquest by Aq Qoyunlu, 1469
When the great traveller Ibn Battuta (d.1368/69) visited the Ilkhânate in 1326-1327, its power seemed well founded and unassailable. When he returned from China, between 1346 and 1349, the Khânate had already collapsed! This abrupt and astonishing revolution left a number of successor states. The Jalâyirid Sulṭâns held Tabrîz, western Irân and lower Mesopotamia. The Black Sheep (Qara Qoyunlu) Turks lay just to the west, in Armenia and upper Mesopotamia. In between their domain and
Trebizond were the White Sheep (Aq Qoyunlu) Turks. All were swept over, but not eliminated, by Tamerlane. As the Timurid hegemony receded, the Black Sheep Turks overthrew the Jalâyirids. It wasn't much longer, however, before the White Sheep Turks became the ultimate winner, assembling a state that stretched even into eastern Irân, the most successful of the Ilkhân successors. When they fell, it would be to an altogether new force, the Safavids, who, although Turks themselves, ushered in an Irânian, and a Shi'ite, revival.
The Aq Qoyunlu, or White Sheep Turks
Qutlugh Fakhr ad-Dînc.1360-1389
Qara Yoluq 'Uthmân Fakhr ad-Dîn1403-1435
'Alî Jalâl ad-Dîn1435-1438
Ḥamza Nûr ad-Dîn1438-1444
Jahângîr Mu'izz ad-Dîn1444-1457
Uzun Ḥasan1457-1478
Sulṭân Khalîl1478
Aḥmad Gövde1497
AlwandDiyâr Bakr
& Azerbaijan,
MuḥammadIraq & Persia,
Sulṭân MurâdPersia,
Zayn al-'ÂbidînDiyâr Bakr,
Ṣafawid conquest, 1508

The Timurids
Tîmûr-i Lang
Defeats, captures & imprisons
Bâyezîd, battle of Ankara, 1402
Pîr Muḥammad1405-1407
in Kandahar
Khalîl Sulṭân1405-1409
in Samarkand,
Shâh Rukh1505-1409
in Khorasân,
in Transoxania
East & West Iran
Ulugh Beg1447-1449
in Transoxania
& Khurasan
Bâbur I1449-1457
in Khorasân
'Abd alLaṭîf1449-1450
in Transoxania
Abû Sa'îd1451-1469
in Transoxania
& Iran
in Khorasân
Abû Sa'îd1459-1469
in Khorasân
Ḥusayn Bâyqarâ1469-1506
in Khorasân
Sulṭân Aḥmad1469-1494
in Transoxania
in Transoxania
in Transoxania
Bâbur II, the Great Moghul1498-1500,
in Transoxania,
in Transoxania
Özbeg conquest of Transoxania
& Farghâna, 1501
Badî' al-Zamân1506-1507
in Khorasân
Özbeg/Uzbek conquest
of Khorasân, 1507

Tamerlane was only partly Mongol and never claimed to be one. But he tended to use Mongol puppet figureheads and did create the last serious nomadic empire. A devoted Moslem, his conquests and massacres were nevertheless almost entirely directed against fellow Moslems. Poor little Georgia had to bear most of his wrath against Christians.

Despite what must seem the superfluous slaughter and pointless terror of Tamerlane's campaigns, his was the only historic empire actually founded on the region of Transoxania and cities like Samarkand and Bukhara. This brought a period of higher culture and architecture to the area. The style of architecture, indeed, passed to the Moghuls. The splendor of the Taj Mahâl thus owes more than a little to the ferocious Tamerlane.

The region of Farghâna included a small Timurid principality. The Özbeg conquest of the region (1501) sent the heir, Bâbur, heading for Kabul (1514) and India (1526), where he founded the Moghul Empire.

Shibânid Özbegs/Uzbeks
killed by Kazakhs,
disintegration, 1468-1500
Muḥammad Shıbâni Shah Beg Özbeg1500-1512
Köchkunju Muḥammad1512-1531
Abû Sa'îd Muz.affar ad-Dîn1531-1534
'Ubaydallâh Abû'l-Ghâzî1534-1539
'Abdallâh I1539-1540
'Abd al-Laṭîf1540-1552
Nawrûz Aḥmad, Baraq1552-1556
Pîr Muḥammad I1556-1561
'Abdallâh II1583-1598
'Abd al-Mu'min1598
Pîr Muḥammad II1598-1599
succession of Toqay Temürids

If the Timurids had been more Turkish than Mongol, they were succeeded by rulers who were at least of Mongol patrimony, the Shibânid Khâns of the Özbegs or Uzbeks -- Turkish tribes, but perhaps named after the Khân of the Blue Horde, Muḥammad Özbeg (1313-1341). Moving first south into the lands of the old White Horde, they then displaced the Timurids in Transoxania and northern Afghanistan, in part under the pressure of the Kazakhs. Although often fragemented, the Khânate and its successors, with the Kazakhs, dominate Central Asia until the arrival of the Russian Empire. Uzbekistan, of course, is one of the successor Republics to the Soviet Union.

Koirijaq Oglunc.1394-1422
Golden Horde,
killed by Abu'l-Khayr of the Uzbeks
Jani Beg1440-1480
independent of Uzbeks, 1456
BoydasEast, 1526/38
TogimSouth, 1526/38
Uziaq AhmadNorth, 1526/35
Haqq Nazar/Aq Nazakunites horde, 1538-1575/80
1586, all Kazakhs
Jahangir Khan1628-1652
Ablaigirim1628-36; d.c.1650
vacant, 1652-1680
The Khâns of the Kazakhs are curiously missing from Bosworth's The New Islamic Dynasties. There seems to be much obscurity in their history, and the details here are from the German
Wikipedia website. While the Kazakhs seem to originate as vassals of the Özbegs, their Khâns are initially derived from the Golden Horde. When the Özbeg Abu'l-Khayr kills the Golden Khân Boraq, his sons, after an exile in Mughulistân (Sinkiang), return to avenge themselves. This shatters the Özbegs (1468), from which the Kazakhs emerge as an independent Khânate. The dating is unclear, but the Özbegs are pushed south to the Oxus (Amu Dar'ya) valley and the mountains to the south-east, and the Kazakhs come to dominate the steppe, the valley of the Jaxartes (Syr Dar'ya), and the mountains to the south-east of there. This is reflected in the modern map of the region, with an independent Kazakhstan north of Uzbekistan. The modern caital, Alma Ata, is far to the south-east, near the border of Kirghizia. One complication of Kazakh history seems to be that the Horde periodically, and then permanently, splits into Lesser (west), Middle (north, east), and Elder (south) Hordes -- and evidently the Kirgiz also. These were all, of course, Turkish peoples, with initially the Mongol derived rulers. Today the Turks of the region are distinguished, with the modern states, into Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kirgiz (in Kirghizia), and Turkmen (in Turkmenistan, south of the Oxus, an area that is mostly desert, though with the historic city of Merv, now Mary). The whole area, of course, has been characterized with the geographical expression Turkistan. In the 18th century, the Lesser and Middle Horde came under Russian influence. They were conquered by 1824. The Elder Horde and Kirgiz were conquered in 1854.

Toqay Temürids, Jânids
Jânî Muḥammad1599-1603
Bâqî Muḥammad1603-1605
Walî Muḥammad1605-1611
Imâm Qulî1611-1641
Nadhr Muḥammad1641-1645
Balkh only,
'Abd al-'Azîz1645-1681
Ṣubḥân Qulî1681-1702
figureheads of Mangıts, 1747
'Abd al-Mu'min1747-c.1750
The Toqay Temürids or Jânids (from Jânî Muḥammad) were actually from the house of
Astrakhan and so, again, were more Mongol than Turkish. They simply displace the Uzbek Shibânids. The domain, again, is sometimes fragmented, especially with a "lesser" Khân in Balkh (in Afghanistan). In the end, Jânids were figureheads for the Mangıts.

Mangıts of Bukhara
Muḥammad Raḥîm Atalıq1747-1758
Dâniyâl Biy Atalıq1758-1785
Shâh Murâd Amîr-i-Ma'ṣûm1785-1800
Sayyid Ḥaydar Tora1800-1826
Sayyid Ḥusayn1826-1827
Naṣr Allâh1827-1860
Muz.affar ad-Dîn1860-1886
Russian conquest, 1868
'Abd al-Aḥad1886-1910
Sayyid 'Âlim Khân1910-1920
overthown by Bosheviks, 1920

The Mangıts were from an Uzbek tribe who became chief ministers, Atalıqs, to the Jânids. Like many other such arrangements, the power of the ministers overwhelmed and then overthrew that of their masters. The domain became the Khânate of Bukhara (Bokhara). The arrival of the Russians reduced the power and the domain of the Khâns, but their rule, or misrule, actually continued. Nothing fundamentally changed until the Russian Revolution. A "People's Republic of Bukhara" overthrew the Khân, who went into exile in Afghanistan. Rather than tolerating local self-determination, of course, the Bolsheviks forcibly reconstituted as much of the Russian Empire as possible. Today, however, Bukhara finds itself in an independent Uzbekistan (whose capital is Tashkent). Two other Uzbek Khântes, Khiva and Khoqand (around Tashkent), shared space with Bokhara, until similarly attached to Russia. Khoqand was abolished in 1876, while Khiva survived, like Bukhara, until 1920.

These lists (except for the Kazakh Khâns) are derived from The New Islamic Dynasties, by Clifford Edmund Bosworth [Edinburgh University Press, 1996] and the Oxford Dynasties of the World, by John E. Morby [Oxford University Press, 1898, 2002, pp.270-276 & pp.288-292].

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4. the Oghullar of Rûm

The many successors of the Seljuks in Anatolia are
Aydın Oghulları
Sarukhân Oghulları
Menteshe Oghulları
Germiyân Oghulları
Ḥamîd Oghulları
Tekke Oghulları
Jândâr Oghulları
Qaramân Oghulları
Eretna Oghulları
Dulghadır Oghulları
Osmanli Oghulları
often called the , oghullar, or "sons." In modern Turkish, "son" is oğul, with a breve on the g, which means that the o is lengthened and the gu lost. Lar is the regular plural suffix. In the Turkish grammatical construction, we get the name of the domain or dynasty and then , Oghulları, "its sons." In the map above, for the year 1361, based on The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History [Colin McEvedy, 1992, p.93], we have a unique political fragmentation of both the Balkans and Anatolia. This is about the only time since the Hellenistic Age, and the last time thereafter, that Anatolia has consisted of such a small number of states, mostly Turkish but with Greeks, Armenians, and Crusaders holding on in a few places. Every single realm on the map, except for Epirus, is covered by a separate treatment here. Thus we have Romania under the Palaeologi, Bulgaria under the Terters, Serbia, Wallachia & Moldavia, Trebizond, Hungary, the Golden Horde, Georgia, the Jalayirids, the White Sheep Turks, the Black Sheep Turks, the Mamlûks, Lesser Armenia, Cyprus, Rhodes under the Hospitallers, Achaea & the Cyclades and Naples under the Anjevians, Athens under Sicily, Crete and other places under Venice, and Chios and other places under Genoa. Epirus had recently existed under its own Despots, been attached to Romania, and then drifted out of control under local Albanian princes. It would not be strongly unified until George Castriota, or Skanderbeg, temporarily drove the Turks out between 1443 and 1463. Note that the city of Philadelphia (modern Alashehir) is an isolated possession of Romania within the Beylik of Germiyân. It held out until falling to the Ottomans in 1390.

These lists are all from Clifford Edmund Bosworth's The New Islamic Dynasties [Edinburgh University Press, 1996, pp.220-238]. McEvedy may have overlooked one small state of oghullar, and when I figure out how the map would need to be modifed, it may be added.

Aydın Oghulları
Family of Aydın Oghlu Muḥammad Beg
Captures Ephesus, 1304
Muḥammad Beg,
Mubâriz ad-Dîn Ghâzî
Umur I Beg,
Bahâ' ad-Dîn Ghâzî
Captures Smyrna (I.zmir); naval defeat at Adramyttion, 1334; naval defeat by Venice & Romania, loss of harbor of Smyrna, 1344
Annexation by Bâyezîd I, 1390
Restoration by Tîmûr, 1402
Umur II1402-1405
Annexation by Murâd II, 1426
The Aydın Oghulları ("Sons of Aydin") are noteworthy because their seizure of Ephesus and Smyrna allowed for the development of a very troublesome degree of sea power, provoking two leagues of western powers to help Romania suppress it. The second league succeeded in recapturing the harbor and part of the city of Smyrna, though this only temporarily hampered the Begs. A noteworthy complication at the time was the civil war in Romania between John V Palaeologus and John VI Cantacuzenus. Cantacuzenus cultivated Turkish allies, including the Ottoman Amîr Orkhân and Umur I of Aydın.
Ṣarukhân Oghulları
Ṣarukhân Begc.1313-c.1348
Ilyâs Fakhr ad-Dînc.1348-1357
Isḥâq Chelebi Muz.affar ad-Dîn1357-c.1388
Khiḍr Shâh1388-1390, 1404-1410
Conquest by Bâyezîd I, 1390
restoration by Tamerlane, 1402; annexation by Meḥmed I, 1410
This was a disastrous error, since Ottoman troops were thus introduced into Europe. They stayed. The Beys of Aydın also illustrate the temporary setback suffered by the Ottomans. The defeat of Bâyezîd I by Tamerlane led to the brief reëtablishment (1402-1426) of the Aydın Oghulları.

The Ṣarukhân Oghulları ruled immediately north of Aydın, in what had been Greek Magnesia. They shared the fate of Aydın in Ottoman conquest, restoration, and conquest again. This pattern continues with most of the Oghullar below.

Menteshe Oghulları
Menteshe Begc.1280-c.1296
Orkhan Shujâ'ud-Dînc.1319-c.1344
Muhammad, & Tâj ud-Dîn Aḥmadc.1360-1391
Conquest by Bâyezîd I, 1391
Ilyâs Muz.affar ad-Dîn or Shujâ'ud-Dîn1402-1421
restoration by Tamerlane, 1402
Layth and Aḥmad1421-1424
annexation by Murâd II, 1424

Germiyân Oghulları
Ya'qûb 'Alî Shîrc.1299-c.1327
Muḥammad Chakhshadânc.1327-c.1363
Sulaymân Shâhc.1363-1387
Ya'qûb II Chelebi1387-1390, 1402-1411, 1413-1428
Conquest by Bâyezîd I, 1390; restoration by Tamerlane, 1402; occupation by Qaramânids, 1411-1413; annexation by Murâd II, 1428
The Menteshe Oghulları, in Classical Caria and around Miletus, were immediately to the south of Aydın. Up behind all the coastal states were the Germiyân Oghulları, in the Classical Lydia and Phrygia. As with many of the Ohgullar, the Germinyân were originally a Turkish or Turkomen tribe in service to the Seljuks. Settled in the west as vassals of the Seljuks, the independent Beylik and first controlled the coast, but then was pushed back as separate states developed there.

Ḥamîd Oghulları
Dündâr Beg Falak ad-Dînc.1301-1324
Occupation by Il Khâns, 1324-1327
Khiḍr Beg1327-1328
Isḥâq Najm ad-Dîn1328-1344
Muṣṭafâ Muaz.affar ad-Dînc.1344-?
Ilyâs Ḥusâm ad-Dîn?-c.1374
Ḥusayn Kamâl ad-Dînc.1374-1391
Conquest by Bâyezîd I, 1391

The Ḥamîd Oghulları began with a Seljuk vassal, Ilyâs ibn Ḥamîd. With the Seljuk collapse his two sons established adjacent Beyliks, inland in Classical
Tekke Oghulları
Khiḍr sinan ad-Dîn1327-c.1372
Muḥammad Mubâriz ad-Dînc.1372-c.1378
'Uthmân Chelebi?-1391, 1402-1423
Conquest by Bâyezîd I, 1391; restoration by Tamerlane, 1402; annexation by Murâd II, 1423
Pisidia, and allong the coast in Classical Pamphylia and Lycia -- starting the Tekke Oghulları. Both states were taken by Bâyezîd, and only one was temporarily restored by Tamerlane.

Jândâr Oghulları
Yaman Jâdâr Shams ad-Dîn1292-c.1308
Sulaymân I Shujâ'ud-Dînc.1308-c.1340
Ibrâhîm Ghiyâth ad-Dînc.1340-1345
Bâyazîd Kötörüm Jalâl ad-Dînc.1361-1384
Sulaymân II Shâh1384-1385
Isfandiyâr Mubâriz ad-Dîn1385-1393, 1402-1440
Conquest by Bâyezîd I, 1393; restoration by Tamerlane, 1402
Ibrâhîm Tâj ad-Dîn1440-1443
Ismâ'îl Kamâl ad-Dîn1443-1461
Qızıl Aḥmad1461-1462
annexation by Meḥmed II, 1462

The domain of the Jândâr Oghulları was along the Black Sea coast, Classical Paphlagonia. They were at first vassals of the Il Khâns but became independent with their collapse.
Qaramân Oghulları
Qaramân Nûr ad-Dîn or Nûra Ṣûfîc.1256-1261
Muḥammad I Shams ad-Dîn1261-1278
Güneri Beg1278-1300
Maḥmud Badr ad-Dîn1300-1307
Ibrâhim I Badr ad-Dînc.1317-1344/49
Aḥmad Kakhr ad-Dîn1344/49-1349
Shams ad-Dîn1349-1352
Conquest by Bâyezîd I, 1398
Muḥammad II1402-1419, 1441-1423
Restoration by Tamerlane, 1402
'Alî1419-1421, 1423-1424
Ibrâhîm II Tâj ad-Dîn1424-1464
Pîr Aḥmad1464-1475
annexation by Meḥmed II, 1475
Although falling to the Ottomans, the Jândâr family nevertheless became successful serving them.

The Qaramân Oghulları were a vigorous state and stood a good chance of becoming the dominant successors of the Seljuks. They even became the heirs of the Seljuk capital of Konya (Iconium). However, they were still no match for the the Ottomans. They lost Ankara (Angora), the ancient capital of Galatia, in 1354, and fell altogether to Bâyezîd in 1398. Restored by Tamerlane, they had to go through the experience all over again.

Dulghadır Oghulları
Qaraja ibn Dulghadır al-Malik az-Z.âhir Zayn ad-Dîn1337-1353
Khalîl Ghars ad-Dîn1353-1386
Sha'bân Sûlî1386-1398
Muḥammad Nâṣir ad-Dîn1398-1442
Malid Arslan1454-1465
Shâh Budaq1465-1466, 1472-1479
Shâh Suwâr1466-1472
Bozqurd 'Alâ'ud-Dawla1479-1515
annexation by Süleymân I, 1521

Of all the Oghullar, the Dulghadır Oghulları, sharing the Taurus with Lesser Armenia, held out the longest against the Ottomans, with help as vassals of the White Sheep Turks and the Mamlüks. Even after conquering the Mamlûks and pushing into Mesopotamia, Selim the Grim seems to have tolerated them, though they didn't last long into the reign of Süleymân the Magnicient.
Eretna Oghulları
Eretna 'Alâ'ud-Dîn1336-1352
Muḥammad I Ghiyâth ad-Dîn1352-1366
'Alî 'Alâ'ud-Dîn1366-1380
Muḥammad II Chelebi1380
Succession of Qâḍî Burhân ad-Dîn Oghulları, 1380
Aḥmad Qâḍî Burhân ad-Dîn1380-1398
killed by White Sheep Turks, 1398
'Alî Zayn ad-'Âbidîn 'Alâ' ad-Dîn1398
annexation by Bâyezîd I, 1398
Finally, we come to the Eretna Oghulları, who in 1361 controlled a large area in the north-east of the old domain of Rüm. This actually overlapped Classical Galatia, Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, and Helenopontus and put them adjacent to the Il Khân heirs, the white Sheep Turks. Their local capital was Sivas (Sebastea) and then Kayseri (Caesarea, in Cappadocia).

The Eretna Begs were succeeded by their own Vizir, Qâḍî Burhân ad-Dîn, who founds his own, short-lived Oghullar. Killed fighting the White Sheep Turks, he was briefly followed by his son before his commanders surrendered the domain the Ottomans.

There were other Oghullar states that briefly followed the ones given here, and some earlier Seljuk domains that were for a time rivals of Rûm, but the representatives of the year 1361 certainly convey the idea of the complexity of the period, before a uniformity of Ottoman government was imposed that continues, in effect, down to the present day. The fragmentation of the Oghullar is reminiscent of the period of the Reyes de Taifas (mulûk aṭ-Ṭawâ'if) in Spain. However, none of the Spanish states was ever able to predominate, and Islamic Spain only survived against the Reconquista as long as outside power, the Almoravids and Almohads, contributed their strength. Without them, Islamic Spain collapsed. With the Oghullar, however, not only did one of them, the Ottomans, predominate, but they grew into one of the great empires of history, surviving into the 20th century.

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