The Mongol Khāns

Mongolian culture in most respects reflected the influence of China. For instance, there are Mongolian terms for the Chinese 60 year calendar cycle. On the other hand, significant other influences came into play. The writing system eventually adopted for Mongolian was the alphabet brought by Nestorian Christian missionaries into Central Asia, which was used to write other Altaic languages related to Mongolian, like Uighur and Manchu. This script is deficient in letters for vowels, which always made it an ambiguous way to write these languages. Under Soviet influence, Mongolian now is mostly written in the Cyrillic alphabet.

In religion, Mongolia also went its own way, adopting the Vajrayana Buddhism, or Lamaism, of Tibet. This may have contributed to the military decline of Mongolia, since a large part of the population committed to monasticism does not make for anything like the nation of fierce warriors that stormed across Asia in the 13th century. Thus, Manchu China conquered Mongolia for the first time in its history in 1696. It remained part of China until 1911, when the fall of the Manchus enabled the Mongols, like the Tibetans, to assert their independence.

The Chinese, however, enforced their claim to Mongolia by an invasion in 1919. This was successful, but with Soviet help the Chinese were driven out in 1921. Mongolian independence, at least from China, was henceforth under the protection of the Soviet Union. But this also, naturally, made Mongolia subject to Russian experiments in Communism. Stalin's collectivization of agriculture was extended to Mongolia, with the forced settlement of nomads. Many of them, consequently, moved to Chinese Inner Mongolia to escape. Since 1990, Mongolia, like other post-Soviet states, has been struggling to develop a normal life and government free of police state measures and Russian domination.

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Philosophy of History


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Philosophy of History

Map shows the conquests of Chingiz Khān as divided at his death among his four sons. Jochi, the eldest son had, however, already died; so his sector was actually divided between his own sons, Batu (the Blue Horde), Orda (the White Horde), and Shiban, later united into the Golden Horde, the most durable of the Mongol regimes. Tuli (Tolui), the youngest son, was given the homeland of Mongolia. And it was the sons of Tuli, after the conquest of Russia, who carried out the greatest subsequent conquests, of the Middle East and China.

The Great Khāns,
the Yüan Dynasty, ,
of China, 1206-1368
Chingiz Khān/Qaghan
Genghis Khan
T'ai Tsu
Great Khān,
Chin Empire attacked,
Qara-Khitaï overthrown,
Khawarizm Shāh thrown out
of Transoxania, 1219-1222;
Hsi-Hsia overthrown, 1226-1227
Ögedei Khān
T'ai Tsung
Khawarizm Shāh overthrown, 1231
Chin overthrown, 1230-1234
Töregene Khātūn regent,
Güyük Khān
Ting Tsung
Oghul Ghaymish regent,
Möngke Khān
Hsien Tsung
Southern Sung invaded,
Qubilai Khān
Shih Tsu
Southern Sung conquered,
Temür Öljeytü Khān
Ch'eng Tsung
Qayshan Gülük
Wu Tsung
Jên Tsung
Suddhipala Gege'en
Ying Tsung
Tai-ting Ti
T'ien-shun Ti
Jijaghatu Toq-Temür
Wen Tsung
Qoshila Qutuqtu
Ming Tsung
Ning Tsung
Uqaghatu Qaghan
Hui Tsung,
Shun Ti
Mongols expelled from
China, 1368
Northern Yüan, , Dynasty, Mongolia
after the Yüan, 1368-1628
Biliktü Qaghan
Chao Tsung
Usaqal Qaghan
Engke Soriktu1389-1393
Gun Timur1400-1403
Oljei Timur1403-1411
Adai QaʿAn1425-1438
Esen Toghan Tayisi1438-1440
Tayisung QaʿAn1440-1452
Chinese Emperor captured at T'u-mu, 1449
Esen Tayisi1452-1455
Molon Khan Togus1452-1454
Maqa Kurkis1454-1463?
Bayan Mongke1467-1470
civil war, 1470-c.1485
Dayan Khan1479-1543
Altan Khan1543-1583
Devastating raids into China, 1550; converted to Buddhism by the Dalai Lama, 1578
rebellion, Mongolia breaks up
Kudeng Darayisun1547-1557
Tumen Jasaghtu1557-1592
Sechen Khan1592-1604
Ligdan Khan1604-1634
Senge Dugureng1583-1587
Ombo Khan?-1628
Manchurian conquest, 1628
Subadi Jasaghtu Khan1637-1650
conquest of Tibet, 1642
Norbu Bishireltu Khan1650-1657
Manchurian occupation, 1688-1691
Manchurian conquest, 1732
Complete Manchurian Conquest,
c.1696 (1628-1732)
Genghis Khan (Chingiz or Chinggis, Khān or Khagan) believed that he had been given the dominion of the whole world. Although the Mongols, as far as we know, didn't have a tradition of believing such a thing, Genghis launched a campaign that came closer than any other such effort in history to realizing its goal.

What Genghis accomplished himself was mostly to absorb kingdoms in Central Asia that most people would not have heard of anyway, but his sons and grandsons accomplished the conquests of China, Russia, Korea, Iran, and Iraq -- just to mention the most famous places. The abolition of the Islāmic Caliphate in Baghdad affected the whole subsequent history of Islām. Devastating defeats were also inflicted on Poland, Hungary, and Turkey, but growing feuds between increasingly more estranged cousins began to divert energies from more distant permanent conquests.

Sometimes, as in the invasions of Japan, extraordinary circumstances, in that case the "Divine Wind" (kami kaze, 神風) typhoons, foiled Mongol conquest. But the ultimate enemy of the Mongols was the Mongols themselves. Whereas the average length of a generation of European royalty from Charlemagne to Queen Elizabeth (about 40 generations) was nearly 30 years, the Mongol generations turned over in only about 20 years. The Chingizids tended to drink themselves to death; and once no longer centered on the steppe, they lost their military edge.

Only the Golden Horde ("horde" from orda, "army") retained a steppe base and steppe culture, consequently lasting more than three centuries, rather than less than 90 years as with both the Ilkhāns in the Middle East or the Yüan Dynasty in China.

I had some problems with reconciling the Mongolian dates and names [The Mongols, David Morgan, Basil Blackwell, 1986, and The New Islamic Dynasties, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Edinburgh University Press, 1996, which do not give Chinese names] with the Chinese list of Yüan emperors [Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary, Harvard University Press, 1972, p. 1175, which does not give the Mongolian names].

This is now cleared up by Ann Paludan's Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors [Thames & Hudson, London, 1998, pp. 148-157]. Two Emperors did not reign long enough to be acknowledged by Chinese historians. Also, Chinese sources list Ming Tsung before Wen Tsung (or Wen Ti, in Mathews') because the second reign of the latter is counted.

After Togus-Temür, I have only found a list of rulers for Mongolia in Bruce R. Gordon's Regnal Chronologies -- though Gordon actually doesn't list Togus-Temür, but only "Biliktu," with slightly different dates. Now I discover that "Biliktu" refers to the brother and predecessor of Togus-Temür, Ayushiridara, whose name I had not seen at all peviously but I now see attested in the Nihon Kodaishi Daijiten, or Dictionary of Ancient Japanese History, on CD-ROM [2006], which provides the genealogy, and at the Chinaknowledge website of Ulrich Theobald -- the word "Qaghan," proper Mongolian for "Khān," is used in titles given by Theobald. Gordon's "Usaqal" then turns out to be Togus-Temür himself.

Altan Khan looks like the last vigorous and effective Mongolian ruler, striking blows against China that deeply discomfited the Ming government. Yet rebellions began early in Altan Khan's reign that he was never able to put down; and his direct successors rulled a state (Tumed) that simply shared in the breakup of the country.

Mongolia would no longer be a threat to China, but Manchuria would soon conquer China (1644-1683) and Mongolia (1628-1732) as well. The most effective of the fragmented kingdoms seems to be that of Khalka. Since Mongol authority was asserted over Tibet in 1642, I assume that the Khans of Khalka were responsible. This gave the Manchus a pretext for claiming authority over Tibet after their conquest of Mongolia.

As noted above, classical Mongolian was written in an alphabet ultimately derived from the Syriac alphabet brought by Nestorian missionaries, as transmitted by way of Uighur and adopted under Genghis Khān. This was actually a poor way to write Mongolian, since such alphabets do not represent vowels.

As it happens, Qubilai Khān requested that the Tibetan 'Phags-pa, a nephew of the Mongol Regent of Tibet, develop an alphabetic writing system for Mongolian. The system he developed was made official and compulsory in 1269. Despite the inadequacies of the Uighur alphabet, the system of 'Phags-pa did not catch on. Official documents using it survive, but the older script survived and returned to dominance until the Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Communist Mongolia. With other post-Soviet states turning to traditional alphabets or the Latin alphabet, it would be a nice touch for Mongolia to revive the 'Phags-pa system.

The Chaghatayid or Jagataiïd
Khāns of Mughulistān
Qara Hülegü1244-1246
Yesü Möngke1246-1251
Orqina Khātūn1252-1260
Mubārak Shāh1266
Ghiyāth adDīn
Buqa/Toqa Temür1272-1282
Du'a, Duwa, Tuvac.1282-1306
conquers domain of Qaidu, 1306
Esen Buqa1309-1320
Du'a Temür1326
ʿAlāʾ adDīn
Yesün Temürc.1338-1342
Buyan Quli1358
Shāh Temür1359
Tughluq Temür1359-1363

The situation in Mughulistān (Turkistan and Sinkiang, including the Tarim Basin, in Central Asia) seems confused. Other sources ascribe a reign to Qaidu, son of the Great Khān Güyük; and grandson of the Great Khān Ögedey, but he is not listed by Bosworth's New Islamic Dynasties. At the same time, Bosworth lists Qara Hülegü as the son of Mö'eüken, who is listed as an otherwise unknown, to me, son of Chingiz [p.248].

Similarly, other sources affirm that Jagatai-ids return to power by 1309, but Bosworth's list takes no note of this and simply continues with descendants of Chaghatay and Mö'eüken. This is perplexing.

The answer appears to be that Qaidu detached his own domain, to contest the Great Khānate, in the Dzungaria (Junggar) Basin and through part of Mongolia to the north-east, ruling from 1260/64-1301/03. He was succeeded by his son, Chapar, who briefly ruled 1301/03-1306. Chapar was defeated by the proper Chaghatayid Khān, Du'a, eliminating the division within Mughulistān.

Tuva or Bust!

This event is of independent interest, since Du'a's name also appears as Tuva (Тува; Tuvinian, Тыва), a name that apparently stuck in a small mountainous area north-east of the Altai Mountains. The Republic of Tuva (capital Kyzyl, Кызыл) was independent for a period after the fall of the Russian Empire, 1921-1944, before being conquered by the Communists.

The Republic even issued stamps that came to the attention of the great physicist, and youthful stamp collector, Richard Feynman. The Tuva Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Russian Republic in the Soviet Union, claimed to contain the geographical center of the Continent of Asia, with a monument to mark the spot. It was also closed to foreigners. Nevertheless, Feynman spent the last few years of his life trying to arrange a trip there. Unfortunately, he died very shortly before permission for his visit arrived (1988).

As with some other derivatives of Mongol states, we discover that the modern Tuvan language (Tuvinian) is actually more closely related to Turkish than to Mongolian.

Tuva has been in the news recently, because of Vladimir Putin's invasion of the Ukraine. Tuva, with its Mongolian past, boasts its own military tradition; and its citizens reportedly joined the Soviet Army even before the country was annexed to the Soviet Union. Because of this, volunteers from Tuva are prominent in the current Russian Army; and support for Putin's war seems to be substantial.

The current Russian defense minister, Sergei Shoigu, is reportedly from "the region." And although this may not mean Tuva specifically, he is solicitous of Tuvan participation in the Army. Shoigu financed a statue of the Buddha that he said he hoped would "protect Tuva" and contribute to the development of Buddhism -- which seems to mean that the dominant religion in Tuva is Buddhism, rather than, as we might wonder, ʾIslām.

The "55th Motorized Rifle Brigade," a kind of mountain division, with mostly Tuvan personnel, has been based in Kyzyl since 2016. This seems to have been the doing of Shoigu, who sees its presence contributing to the local economy.

Tuvans, consequently, have been killed in the Ukraine. The graves for thirteen such casualties can be counted in Kyzyl's main cemetery, with an open grave ready for more. With Putin's announcement of a "partial," but actually general, mobilization of Russian men, rewards have been offered for some recruits. One story is that a gift will be made of a "ram" to Tuvan families who volunteer a member for the army. This may tell us a lot about the economic level of people in Tuva. Most of us would not know what to do if we received a male sheep from the government.

The end of the Chaghatayids is as obscure as these other issues. Mughulistān is displaced from Transoxania by the Timurids, Uzbeks, and Kazakhs. In Sinkiang (Xīnjiāng), domains of the Turkic Uighurs took over until Manchu conquest in 1754-59.

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The Khāns of the Golden Horde
The Khāns of the Blue Horde
Russia conquered, 1236-1239; Europe invaded, 1239-1242; Poles & Teutonic Knights defeated at Liegnitz, Hungarians crushed at the River Sajó, April 1241; Hungary occupied, 1241-1242
Möngke Temür1267-1280
Töde Möngke1280-1287
Invades Hungary, defeated, 1285-1286; invades Poland, defeated, 1287
Töle Buqa1287-1291
Muḥammad Özbeg1313-1341
Tīnī Beg1341-1342
Jānī Beg1342-1357
Berdi Beg1357-1359
Period of anarchy, 1357-1380; union with White Horde, 1378
The Khāns of the Golden Horde
d. 1406
1378/1380, union of White Horde & Blue Horde into the Golden Horde; sacks Novgorod & Moscow, 1382; expelled from Saray by Tamerlane, 1395
Temür Qutlugh1395-1401
Shādī Beg1401-1407
Pūlād Khān1407-1410
Jalāl adDīn1412
Karīm Berdi1412-1414
Yeremferden ?1417-1419
Ulugh Muḥammad1419-1420,
of Kazan,
Dawlat Berdi1420-1422
Sayyid Aḥmad Ic.1433-1435
Küchük Muḥammadc.1435-1465
1480, Ivan III refuses tribute;
independence of Russia
Shaykh Aḥmad1481-1498,
Defeated and annexed by
the Khāns of the Crimea, 1502

The Khāns of the White Horde
Sāsibuqa ?1309-1315
Mubārak Khwāja1320-1344
Blue Horde,
Temür Malik1377
1378, union of White Horde & Blue Horde into the Golden Horde
Josef Stalin said that his best generals were "January and February." Indeed, the great invasions of Russia by
Napoleon and Hitler came to grief in great measure because of the harsh Russian winter. Napoleon lost much of his Grand Army in 1812 in a retreat from Moscow in the cold and the snow -- although that wasn't even in the real winter yet.

Hitler was aware of Napoleon's failure, but he expected to conquer Russia before winter set in. However, Hitler got delayed by a campaign against Yugoslavia and then launched forces, not only towards Moscow, but against Leningrad and the Ukraine also. Thus, as the snow began to fall in 1941, the Germans had barely come within sight of Moscow. They weren't even prepared for winter. The men did not have winter clothing and the summer oil in the tanks actually froze. Overconfidence at work.

In light of these events, it is chilling (as it were) to remember that the Mongols conquered Russia during the winter. The Mongols liked winter. Frozen rivers and marshes meant that they could ride right over barriers that in the spring or summer would have slowed them down. Their tough Central Asian ponies knew how to dig down through the snow to eat the frozen grass beneath. This all made for a terror unknown to the Russians before or since.

What the Russians then called their Mongol conquers was the "Tartars" -- invaders come from Tartarus, the deepest part of Hell. However, this was a deliberate modification of the Persian word, تَاتَار, tātār, which just meant a kind of Turk, though the Mongols, of course, were not Turks. But then, as the Mongols appeared out of nowhere from the Steppe, arriving from origins far beyond the knowledge of Russians or Persians, no one really knew who they were or where they were from. To Europeans, they seemed like the Scourge of God.

Eventually, the Golden Horde weakened and broke up into the Khānates of Astrakhan, Kazan, and Crimea. Remnants of the Golden Horde passed in 1502 to the Crimea, which, as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire (as of 1475), held out the longest against Russian power. Thus, independent Hordes survived in Russia for three centuries, and the Crimea for more than two more. This original durability, far beyond the other Mongol Khānates, may be due to the fact that only the Golden Horde remained centered on the steppe. For so long as nomadic military tactics held an advantage, the Golden Horde benefited from it. The day of the nomad had to pass before the Russians gained the upper hand. Crimea survived thanks to the very non-nomadic power of the Ottomans. Russian expansion east would then not be through the steppe but in the Taiga, the dense forestland.

The map at right shows the situation in 1483. Moscow has just ceased paying tribute to the Golden Horde (1480). The successor Khanates to the Horde are already in place. As noted, the Crimea is already a vassal of the Ottomans. Although it would be the Crimean Khāns who finally overthrew the Horde, Astrakhan would acquire the lion's share of the remaining lands of the Horde. Timurids and the White Sheep (Aq Qoyunlu) Turks dominate the Middle East and Central Asia.

Note that Shiban, as a son of Jochi, originally had his own division of the Horde (an ulus, "patrimony"), as seen in the map above. When Toqtamısh moved west to unify the Golden Horde, the Shibanids expanded south and grew into the Khānate of the Özbegs or Uzbeks, perhaps named after the Khān of the Blue Horde, Muḥammad Özbeg (1313-1341). Thus, on the map of 1483, the Uzbeks have become conspicuous. Their line is given below, as their realm (and the Kazakhs) succeeded to most of Central Asia until the coming of the Russians. There was also another son of Jochi, Toqa Temür, who had descendants from who some later Khāns may have descended. This may have included the founder of the Golden Horde proper, Toqtamısh, whose parentage is uncertain.

For a long time I displayed nothing here on the descent of the White Horde or the Golden Horde. Now, however, this has been provided by a correspondent in the Netherlands, who organized information from a French genealogy site, with some reference to RootsWeb [both of which gone from the Web], where there was a discussion of the descent of Toqtamısh. I have revised some of this information, especially for the Golden Horde proper, on the basis of The New Islamic Dynasties, by Clifford Edmund Bosworth [Edinburgh University Press, 1996, p.252-254].

The Blue Horde and White Horde are shown together above at right, ending with Toqtamısh who unites them. Below are the Khāns of the Golden Horde. Some small differences of dates and names remain between the the genealogical diagrams and the tables of rulers above. I allow these to remain to indicate the certainties with the history -- one uncertainty is exactly when the Blue Horde was absorbed by Toqtamısh, variously given as 1378 and 1380. It is noteworthy that, according to Bosworth, the founders of the Khānates of Kazan and Astrakhan were rival cousins in the two Golden Horde lines descended from the Khāns of the White Horde. The Golden Horde itself, however, was ended by the unrelated Giray Khāns of the Crimea.

The Khāns of Kazan
Ulugh Muḥammad1437-1445
Muḥammad Amīn1484-1485
Siberian Khān
ʿAbd alLaṭīf1496-1502
Shāh ʿAlī
Khān of Qāsimov
Ṣāḥīb Giray1521-1524
Ṣafā' Giray1524-1531,
Jān ʿAlī1531-1533
Yādigār Muḥammad1552
1552, Russian conquest
by Ivan IV
The breakup of the Golden Horde resulted in a number of successor states, most importantly the Khānates of Kazan, the Crimea, and Astrakhan. The remnant domain of the Golden Horde was itself annexed by the Crimea in 1502. Otherwise, all would be faced with, and ultimately fall to, the growing power of Russia. The fall of Kazan and Astrakhan motivated Ivan IV to proclaim himself "Tsar of all the Russias."

The Khāns of the Crimea
Ḥājjī Giray I1449-1456
Ḥaydar Giray1456
Nūr Dawlat Giray1466-1467,
Mengli Giray1467-1474,
Vassals of the
Ottoman Empire, 1475;
conquest of Golden
, 1502
Muḥammad Giray I1514-1523
Ghāzī Giray I1523-1524
Sa'ādat Giray I1524-1532
Islām Giray I1532
Ṣāḥīb Giray I1532-1551
Dawlat Giray I1551-1577
Muḥammad Giray II1577-1584
Islām Giray II1584-1588
Ghāzī Giray II1588-1596,
Fatḥ Giray I1596
Toqtamısh Giray1608
Salāmat Giray I1608-1610
Muḥammad Giray III1610,
Jānī Beg Giray1610-1623,
'Ināyat Giray1635-1637
Bahādur Giray I1637-1641
Muḥammad Giray IV1641-1644,
Islām Giray III1644-1654
'Âdil Giray1666-1671
Salīm Giray I1671-1678,
Murād Giray1678-1683
Ḥājjī Giray II1683-1684
Sa'ādat Giray II1691
Ṣafā' Giray1691-1692
Dawlat Giray II1699-1702,
Ghāzī Giray III1704-1707
Qaplan Giray I1707-1708,
Dawlat Giray III1716-1717
Sa'ādat Giray III1717-1724
Mengli Giray II1724-1730,
Fatḥ Giray II1736-1737
Salāmat Giray II1740-1743
Salīm Giray II1743-1748
Arslan Giray1748-1756,
Ḥalīm Giray1756-1758
Qırım Giray1758-1764,
Salīm Giray III1764-1767,
Maqṣūd Giray1767-1768,
Dawlat Giray IV1769,
Qaplan Giray II1769-1770
Ṣāḥīb Giray II1772-1775
Shāhīn Giray1777-1782,
Bahādur II Giray1782-1783
1783, Russian annexation
by Catharine II the Great

The Crimea, أَلْقِرْم, ʾal-Qirm, would endure longer, becoming indeed the last of any of the Mongol Khānates. Its durability, however, was only due to the protection of the Ottomans. Before Russia could take the Crimea, it would have to defeat the Turks. That would not come until the 18th Century. Catherine the Great, not Ivan the Terrible, would finish off the last of the Mongols.

The connection of the Crimea to Turkey led to a significant moment in linguistic history. The Imperial Ambassador to Constantinople, Bubecq (1560-1562), took down sixty words in an unusual language spoken by informants from the Crimea. The language turned out to be Gothic. Goths had been in the Crimea since the 3rd Century AD. It is fortunate that Bubecq was curious about the language, because there is otherwise no surviving evidence of it, and there are no obvious Crimean Goths left now.

But maybe there are, obvious or not. For there comes to be another part of the story. Not Goths, but Englishmen end up part of the story of the Crimea. In 1066, England was invaded twice, first by Harald Hardråde, King of Norway, and next by William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy. Where Harald was defeated and killed at Stamford Bridge by King Harold II of England, days later, after Harold's exhausting march nearly the length of England, Duke William killed and defeated him at Hastings, thus becoming "William the Conqueror."

The Norman Conquest of England spelled the dispossession of the native Saxon nobility, including many Danes who had settled in England, who then began to seek their fortunes elsewhere. Accounts are that hundreds of ships and thousands of refugees arrived at Constantinople, what they would call "Micklegarth," i.e. the "Great City," from Old Norse.

Many of them consequently were drawn to the famous, elite Varangian Guard, τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, of the Emperor of the Romans. Having lost England to Normans/Vikings, Englishmen served the Empire that, at the other end of Europe, had withstood them. They would continue to do so for more than three centuries -- the first reference to Englishmen in the service of Romania was in 1080, the last in 1404 -- 324 years.

The English, however had asked the Emperor Alexius Comnenus for lands of their own. This was granted, and many of them settled at a location on the Black Sea that they then called Nova Anglia -- a "New England" very far from Plymouth Rock. There remains some confusion about where this was. Many think that this was near the mouth of the Danube (Dobruja). Other sources say it was near Nicaea or Nicomedia -- which is impossible, since Nicaea and the environs were occupied by the Seljuk Turks at the time. Our best clue comes from the sailing directions given in one account, which were that "This land lies six days' and six nights' sail across the sea to the east and northeast of Micklegarth." English names were given to cities founded there, such as "London" and "York."

We might consider where you would arrive after six days and six nights of sailing. But more direct evidence is recounted by Bettany Hughes, who tells us that Franciscan missionaries in the 13th Century found a place called the terra Saxorum in the Crimea -- just where we might get to with the sailing directions. Subsequent reports are from "Catalan navigators," over the following centuries, who describe settlements called "Susaco [Saxon or Sussex] and Londina," just as we hear about the original Nova Anglia.

But that isn't the end of it. In a Wikipedia article on Crimean Gothic, we hear that in 1780, Stanisław Bohusz Siestrzeńcewicz, the Archbishop of Mogilev in White Russia, visited the southern coast of the Crimea and Sevastopol. According to his account, he met some Tartars (Tatars, تَاتَار, tātār) who spoke a language similar to Plattdeutsch, i.e. Low German. Their testimony was that although they were then Muslims, they had originally been Christian.
The Khāns of Astrakhan
ʿAbd alKarīm1490-1504
Aq Köbek1532-1534
ʿAbd alRaḥmān1534-1538
Shaykh Ḥaydar1538-1541
1554, Russian conquest
by Ivan IV
Darwīsh ʿAlīRussian vassal,

Their language has generally been taken to be, as it was thought by the Archbishop, the Gothic that was attested by Busbecq two centuries earlier; but of course, if Gothic had survived that long, how much more likely is it that the language was that of the Saxons of Nova Anglia?

Low German is most closely releated to Old Frisian and Old English. The English colonists in the Crimea were going to be those of the original Saxon refugees, speaking Old English, rather than the later Norman nobility, who had also joined the Varangian Guard, and who would have been speaking French or something more like Middle English -- and who would have returned to England, if they survived their service, rather than immigrating to the Crimea. Without the sort of word list provided by Busbecq, imperfect as it was itself, we may never know.

We should mark well the testimony that the "Tartars" of the Archbishop's testimony, although still speaking their own langauge, and remembering their former Christianity, nevertheless had become Muslims. We might expect that, subsequently, they could well have merged with the general population of Crimean Tartars, especially during the long years of Ottoman suzerainty. And could not the same thing have happened with the Crimean Goths?

There are surviving Crimean Tartars. What are the chances that their population includes descendants of Goths and Englishmen? I see no reason why not. They were not unmolested by the Russians under the Tsars and Communists, with discrimination, resettlement, and other hostile policies; but hundreds of thousands survived, even as similar numbers seem to have emigrated.

Late in World War II, after the Russians recovered the Crimea from the Germans, Stalin became suspicious that the Tartars had collaborated with the Germans in the War -- they probably had -- so he deported all of them, some 200,000, to Central Asia, with many of them dying under the conditions imposed on them. Many are back now, but only 15% of the Crimean population, 243,400 in the 2001 Ukrainian census, and still rather out of place in the area -- with about 150,000 still in Uzbekistan, and a similar number in Turkey. While discussions of the Crimean Tartars acknowledge the ethnic mixture of Mongols, Cumans, Goths, Greeks, Italians, and others, I have not seen any notice that the mix includes the English of Nova Anglia. This continues to slip under the radar.

The Crimean Tartars are as much living fossils of history as the 16th century Gothic speakers, or the 13th century English speakers. And we can imagine that they are not at all comfortable with the annexation of the Crimea by Vladimir Putin in 2014. The Russians, who have probably learned nothing and forgotten nothing, are back.

Now that the Russians have done a full scale invasion of the Ukraine in 2022, and they are not doing well, we find Crimean Tatars fighting with the Ukrainians, and showing their flag, shown at left here, over captured or destroyed Russian tanks. Since the Ukrainians are using infiltration and partisan tactics, one might wonder how many Tatars in the Crimea itself are involved in operations against the Russians -- every so often there are mysterious fires and explosions at Russian facilities. The Russians may be wondering also, with the precedent of Stalin beckoning. The Russians still actively practice deportation, as they have been doing to Ukrainians, in violation of international law -- something of no concern to Russia.

Meanwhile, Great Britain is one of the powers that guaranteed the borders and sovereignty of the Ukraine in 1994. Since Russia violated that agreement by invading the Ukraine in 2014 and now again in 2022, Britain is involved in the current war. Might Britain have another interest? Might not Britain claim protection of the Crimean Saxons, who are now merged in the Crimean Tartars? This possibility might not occur to anyone, but I recommend it. The Russians are supposedly protecting ethnic Russians in the Ukraine. Britain can do no less with descendants of her own people. DNA testing could establish this reality.

These lists are derived entirely from The New Islamic Dynasties, by Clifford Edmund Bosworth [Edinburgh University Press, 1996, pp.252-260].

The Il Khāns
Middle East invaded,
conquered, 1255-1260;
Abbasid Caliph killed, 1258;
defeat by Mamlūks,
ʿAin Jalut, 1260
Aḥmad Tegüder1282-1284
Maḥmūd Ghāzān1295-1304
Khudābanda Öljeytü
Abū Saʿīd
ʿAlāʾ adDunyā wa dDīn
Arpa Ke'ün1335-1336
1338-1353, period of
several rival successor states,
like the Jalāyirids,
followed by the Timurids
The amount of harm that the Mongol conquest did to the Middle East cannot be calculated. It was bad enough for Islām that the
Caliphate in Baghdad was destroyed, but at least a form of the Caliphate was soon continued in Cairo. The physical damage and neglect to Iraq, however, may have ruined foundations of civilization and prosperity that went back to the Sumerians. The capital of the Îlkhāns became Tabrīz. Iraq would never again be a center of great power, influence, or culture. Until the Fall of Constantinople, Cairo became the center of Islām.

It may be that a serious effort to conquer Egypt was never launched by the Îlkhāns because the military resources of Mongolia, which had in part been directed at Europe under the Great Khān Ögedei and at the Middle East under Möngke (Hülegü's brother), were entirely drawn off by Qubilai (Hülegü's other brother) for the conquest of China. Certainly, the kind of sustained and punishing campaign that the Song had to face in China was never directed against the Mamlūks.

The Jalāyirids
Shaykh Ḥasan-i Buzurg Tāj ad-Dīn1340-1356
Shaykh Uways1356-1374
Ḥusayn I Jalāl ad-Dīn1374-1382
Sulṭān Aḥmad Ghiyāth ad-Dīn1382-1410
Shāh Walad1410-1411
Uways II1411-1421
Ḥusayn II1425-1532
Conquest by Qara Qoyunlu, 1432
When the great traveller Ibn Battuta (d.1368/69) visited the Ilkhānate in 1326-1327, its power seemed well founded and unassailable. When he returned from China, between 1346 and 1349, the Khānate had already collapsed! This abrupt and astonishing revolution left a number of successor states.
The Qara Qoyunlu, or Black Sheep Turks
Bayram KhôjaVassal of Jalayirids,
Qara Muḥammad1380-1389
Independent, 1382
Qara Yūsufc.1390-1400,
Occupation by Tīmūr, 1400-1406
Jahān Shāh1439-1467
Timurid Vassal until 1449
Ḥasan ʿAlī1467-1469
Abū Yūsuf1469
Conquest by Aq Qoyunlu, 1469

The Jalāyirid Sulṭāns held Tabrīz, western Irān and lower Mesopotamia. The Black Sheep (Qara Qoyunlu) Turks lay just to the west, in Armenia and upper Mesopotamia. In between their domain and Trebizond were the White Sheep (Aq Qoyunlu) Turks. All were swept over, but not eliminated, by Tamerlane. As the Timurid hegemony receded, the Black Sheep Turks overthrew the Jalāyirids. It wasn't much longer, however, before the White Sheep Turks became the ultimate winner, assembling a state that stretched even into eastern Irān, the most successful of the Ilkhān successors. When they fell, it would be to an altogether new force, the Safavids, who, although Turks themselves, ushered in an Irānian, and a Shi'ite, revival.

The Aq Qoyunlu, or White Sheep Turks
Qutlugh Fakhr ad-Dīnc.1360-1389
Qara Yoluq 'Uthmān Fakhr ad-Dīn1403-1435
ʿAlī Jalāl ad-Dīn1435-1438
Ḥamza Nūr ad-Dīn1438-1444
Jahāngīr Mu'izz ad-Dīn1444-1457
Uzun Ḥasan1457-1478
Sulṭān Khalīl1478
Aḥmad Gövde1497
AlwandDiyār Bakr
& Azerbaijan,
MuḥammadIraq & Persia,
Sulṭān MurādPersia,
Zayn al-'ÂbidīnDiyār Bakr,
Ṣafawid conquest, 1508

Tamerlane was only partly Mongol and never claimed to be one. But he tended to use Mongol puppet figureheads and did create the last serious nomadic empire. A devoted Moslem, his conquests and massacres were nevertheless almost entirely directed against fellow Moslems. Poor little Georgia had to bear most of his wrath against Christians.
The Timurids
Tīmūr-i Lang
Defeats, captures & imprisons
Bāyezīd, battle of Ankara, 1402
Pīr Muḥammad1405-1407
in Kandahar
Khalīl Sulṭān1405-1409
in Samarkand,
Shāh Rukh1505-1409
in Khorasān,
in Transoxania
East & West Iran
Ulugh Beg1447-1449
in Transoxania
& Khurasan
deposed and assassinated, 1449
Bābur I1449-1457
in Khorasān
ʿAbd alLaṭīf1449-1450
in Transoxania
Abū Sa'īd1451-1469
in Transoxania
& Iran
in Khorasān
Abū Sa'īd1459-1469
in Khorasān
Ḥusayn Bāyqarā1469-1506
in Khorasān
Sulṭān Aḥmad1469-1494
in Transoxania
in Transoxania
in Transoxania
Bābur II, the Great Moghul1498-1500,
in Transoxania,
in Transoxania
Özbeg conquest of Transoxania
& Farghāna, 1501
Badī' al-Zamān1506-1507
in Khorasān
Özbeg/Uzbek conquest
of Khorasān, 1507

Despite what must seem the superfluous slaughter and pointless terror of Tamerlane's campaigns, his was the only historic empire actually founded on the region of Transoxania and cities like Samarkand and Bukhara. This brought a period of higher culture and architecture to the area. The style of architecture, indeed, passed to the Moghuls. The splendor of the Taj Mahāl thus owes more than a little to the ferocious Tamerlane.

Noteworthy in the succession is Ulugh Beg, whose interests were more in astronomy and mathematics and than conquest or even in government. He built a gigantic naked-eye observatory in Samarkand and recorded star positions and the progress of the solar year so carefully that his results were respectfully and gratefully received in Europe. These concerns, however, distracted him from attention to more mundane matters. His short reign was disputed from the start, and he was deposed and then murdered by one of his own rebelious sons. Only later did it dawn on his successors that all this disloyalty to an exemplar of science and learning was disgraceful.

The region of Farghāna included a small Timurid principality. The Özbeg conquest of the region (1501) sent the heir, Bābur, heading for Kabul (1514) and India (1526), where he founded the Moghul Empire.

Shibānid Özbegs/Uzbeks
killed by Kazakhs,
disintegration, 1468-1500
Muḥammad Shıbāni Shah Beg Özbeg1500-1512
Köchkunju Muḥammad1512-1531
Abū Sa'īd Muz.affar ad-Dīn1531-1534
'Ubaydallāh Abū'l-Ghāzī1534-1539
ʿAbdallāh I1539-1540
ʿAbd al-Laṭīf1540-1552
Nawrūz Aḥmad, Baraq1552-1556
Pīr Muḥammad I1556-1561
ʿAbdallāh II1583-1598
ʿAbd al-Mu'min1598
Pīr Muḥammad II1598-1599
succession of Toqay Temürids
If the Timurids had been more Turkish than Mongol, they were succeeded by rulers who were at least of Mongol patrimony, the Shibānid Khāns of the Özbegs or Uzbeks -- Turkish tribes, but perhaps named after the Khān of the Blue Horde, Muḥammad Özbeg (1313-1341).

Moving first south into the lands of the old White Horde, they then displaced the Timurids in Transoxania and northern Afghanistan, in part under the pressure of the Kazakhs. Although often fragemented, the Khānate and its successors, with the Kazakhs, dominate Central Asia until the arrival of the Russian Empire. Uzbekistan, of course, is one of the successor Republics to the Soviet Union.

The Khāns of the Kazakhs are curiously missing from Bosworth's The New Islamic Dynasties. There seems to be much obscurity in their history, and the details here are from the German Wikipedia website.
Koirijaq Oglunc.1394-1422
Golden Horde,
killed by Abu'l-Khayr of the Uzbeks
Jani Beg1440-1480
independent of Uzbeks, 1456
BoydasEast, 1526/38
TogimSouth, 1526/38
Uziaq AhmadNorth, 1526/35
Haqq Nazar/Aq Nazakunites horde, 1538-1575/80
1586, all Kazakhs
Jahangir Khan1628-1652
Ablaigirim1628-36; d.c.1650
vacant, 1652-1680

While the Kazakhs seem to originate as vassals of the Özbegs, their Khāns are initially derived from the Golden Horde. When the Özbeg Abu-l-Khayr kills the Golden Khān Boraq, his sons, after an exile in Mughulistān (Sinkiang), return to avenge themselves. This shatters the Özbegs (1468), from which the Kazakhs emerge as an independent Khānate.

The dating is unclear, but the Özbegs are pushed south to the Oxus (Amu Dar'ya) valley and the mountains to the south-east, and the Kazakhs come to dominate the steppe, the valley of the Jaxartes (Syr Dar'ya), and the mountains to the south-east of there. This is reflected in the modern map of the region, with an independent Kazakhstan north of Uzbekistan. The modern caital, Alma Ata, is far to the south-east, near the border of Kirghizia.

One complication of Kazakh history seems to be that the Horde periodically, and then permanently, splits into Lesser (west), Middle (north, east), and Elder (south) Hordes -- and evidently the Kirgiz also. These were all, of course, Turkish peoples, with initially the Mongol derived rulers.

Today the Turks of the region are distinguished, with the modern states, into Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kirgiz (in Kirghizia), and Turkmen (in Turkmenistan, south of the Oxus, an area that is mostly desert, though with the historic city of Merv, now Mary). The whole area, of course, has been characterized with the geographical expression Turkistan. In the 18th century, the Lesser and Middle Horde came under Russian influence. They were conquered by 1824. The Elder Horde and Kirgiz were conquered in 1854.

We cannot talk about Kazakhstan without mentioning the satyrical movie Borat! [2006], starring Sacha Baron Cohen as a fictional Kazakh journalist visiting the United States. As with much of Cohen's comedy, it is sometimes difficult to understand what he is doing. Thus, in many of his unscripted interviews with people, Cohen attempts to solicite anti-Semitic sentiments. When he doesn't get them, that part of the interview may end up on the cutting-room floor.

The background for that are pieces he shows about anti-Semitic festivals back in Kazakhstan. However, it is not clear how much anti-Semitism there is in Kazakhstan, where there seem to be few Jews, while we never learn that Kazakhstan is actually an overwhelmingly Muslim country. Cohen thus recoils from pinning anti-Semitism on a Muslim country, despite the fact that anti-Semitism is endemic, often through government propaganda, in many Muslim countries. The scenes where Borat is actually supposed to be home in Kazakhstan were actually shot in România.

The government of Kazakhstan was at first deeply offended by Borat!, as we might imagine; but then it was discovered that tourists wanted to visit the country just because of the movie. It would be a dilemma for any Third World country. So now the government uses "Borat" to promote tourism.
Toqay Temürids, Jānids
Jānī Muḥammad1599-1603
Bāqī Muḥammad1603-1605
Walī Muḥammad1605-1611
Imām Qulī1611-1641
Nadhr Muḥammad1641-1645
Balkh only,
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz1645-1681
Ṣubḥān Qulī1681-1702
figureheads of Mangıts, 1747
ʿAbd al-Mu'min1747-c.1750

The Toqay Temürids or Jānids (from Jānī Muḥammad) were actually from the house of Astrakhan and so, again, were more Mongol than Turkish. They simply displace the Uzbek Shibānids. The domain, again, is sometimes fragmented, especially with a "lesser" Khān in Balkh (in Afghanistan). In the end, Jānids were figureheads for the Mangıts.

Mangıts of Bukhara
Muḥammad Raḥīm Atalıq1747-1758
Dāniyāl Biy Atalıq1758-1785
Shāh Murād Amīr-i-Ma'ṣūm1785-1800
Sayyid Ḥaydar Tora1800-1826
Sayyid Ḥusayn1826-1827
Naṣr Allāh1827-1860
Muz.affar ad-Dīn1860-1886
Russian conquest, 1868
ʿAbd al-Aḥad1886-1910
Sayyid 'Âlim Khān1910-1920
overthown by Bosheviks, 1920
The Mangıts were from an Uzbek tribe who became chief ministers, Atalıqs, to the Jānids. Like many other such arrangements, the power of the ministers overwhelmed and then overthrew that of their masters. The domain became the Khānate of Bukhara (Bokhara).

The arrival of the Russians reduced the power and the domain of the Khāns, but their rule, or misrule, actually continued. Nothing fundamentally changed until the Russian Revolution. A "People's Republic of Bukhara" overthrew the Khān, who went into exile in Afghanistan. Rather than tolerating local self-determination, of course, the Bolsheviks forcibly reconstituted as much of the Russian Empire as possible.

Today, however, Bukhara finds itself in an independent Uzbekistan (whose capital is Tashkent). Two other Uzbek Khāntes, Khiva and Khoqand (around Tashkent), shared space with Bokhara, until similarly attached to Russia. Khoqand was abolished in 1876, while Khiva survived, like Bukhara, until 1920.

These lists (except for the Kazakh Khāns) are derived from The New Islamic Dynasties, by Clifford Edmund Bosworth [Edinburgh University Press, 1996] and the Oxford Dynasties of the World, by John E. Morby [Oxford University Press, 1898, 2002, pp.270-276 & pp.288-292].

The East Turkestan Genocide

The last flag here will be for the state of "East Turkestan," which only exists as a government in exile. This is the Chinese province of 新疆, Xīnjiāng (Sinkiang), whose predominant population is the Turkic Uighurs/Uyghur, ئُويْغُور, Уйғур. The Chinese say that this is an "Autonomous Region," which, of course, is a lie. There is nothing actually autnomous about it. The Uighurs are under the direct dictatorship of metropolitan China.

This area was briefly independent, 1933-1934 and 1944-1949. Since originally conquered by the Qing, the Chinese have considered it an intrinsic part of China, like Tibet, despite the absence of cultural, linguistic, or religious connection to China, and no political connection before the Qing.

Both areas are now subject to genocide and colonization by the Chinese. The international community, which condemns Israel every few minutes at the United Nations, has been curiously complacent and inactive about these crimes. This is especially striking in that the Uighurs are Muslims, who are being specifically oppressed for their religion, which the Chinese are trying to get them to abjure, or to violate its requirements. Muslim countries, who again condemn Israel every few minutes at the United Nations, have generally passed on saying anything about the Chinese treatment of the Uighurs.

Similarly, there are anti-American Muslims in the United States Congress, like the ungrateful and vicious Somali refugee Ilhan Omar, who condemns the United States for "Islamophobia" -- she feels oppressed every day to be living here -- but is silent about China. Nevertheless, she gets elected and reelected by the America-hating and Jew-hating idiot voters of Minnesota. So much for "Minnesota nice."

The Chinese have not been able to conceal their use of concentration camps, which are visible from space; and their use of Uighurs for slave labor has even been exposed with leaked videos from defectors.

These are some of the worse human rights abuses on the planet at the moment. Their general toleration exposes the hypocrisy of many in international politics, from the way the lonely cause of Tibet is shunned, to the prosperous and successful American Muslims who think they are treated badly, while praising China.

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Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved

4. the Oghullar of Rūm

The many successors of the Seljuks in Anatolia are
Aydın Oghulları
Sarukhān Oghulları
Menteshe Oghulları
Germiyān Oghulları
Ḥamīd Oghulları
Tekke Oghulları
Jāndār Oghulları
Qaramān Oghulları
Eretna Oghulları
Dulghadır Oghulları
Osmanli Oghulları
often called the , oghullar, or "sons." In modern Turkish, "son" is oğul, with a breve on the g, which means that the o is lengthened and the gu lost. Lar is the regular plural suffix. In the Turkish grammatical construction, we get the name of the domain or dynasty and then , Oghulları, "its sons." In the map above, for the year 1361, based on The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History [Colin McEvedy, 1992, p.93], we have a unique political fragmentation of both the Balkans and Anatolia. This is about the only time since the Hellenistic Age, and the last time thereafter, that Anatolia has consisted of such a small number of states, mostly Turkish but with Greeks, Armenians, and Crusaders holding on in a few places.

Every single realm on the map, except for Epirus, is covered by a separate treatment here. Thus we have Romania under the Palaeologi, Bulgaria under the Terters, Serbia, Wallachia & Moldavia, Trebizond, Hungary, the Golden Horde, Georgia, the Jalayirids, the White Sheep Turks, the Black Sheep Turks, the Mamlūks, Lesser Armenia, Cyprus, Rhodes under the Hospitallers, Achaea & the Cyclades and Naples under the Anjevians, Athens under Sicily, Crete and other places under Venice, and Chios and other places under Genoa. Epirus had recently existed under its own Despots, been attached to Romania, and then drifted out of control under local Albanian princes. It would not be strongly unified until George Castriota, or Skanderbeg, temporarily drove the Turks out between 1443 and 1463. Note that the city of Philadelphia (modern Alashehir) is an isolated possession of Romania within the Beylik of Germiyān. It held out until falling to the Ottomans in 1390.

These lists are all from Clifford Edmund Bosworth's The New Islamic Dynasties [Edinburgh University Press, 1996, pp.220-238]. McEvedy may have overlooked one small state of oghullar, and when I figure out how the map would need to be modifed, it may be added.

Aydın Oghulları
Family of Aydın Oghlu Muḥammad Beg
Captures Ephesus, 1304
Muḥammad Beg,
Mubāriz ad-Dīn Ghāzī
Umur I Beg,
Bahā' ad-Dīn Ghāzī
Captures Smyrna (İzmir); naval defeat at Adramyttion, 1334; naval defeat by Venice & Romania, loss of harbor of Smyrna, 1344
Annexation by Bāyezīd I, 1390
Restoration by Tīmūr, 1402
Umur II1402-1405
Annexation by Murād II, 1426
The Aydın Oghulları ("Sons of Aydin") are noteworthy because their seizure of Ephesus and Smyrna allowed for the development of a very troublesome degree of sea power, provoking two leagues of western powers to help Romania suppress it. The second league succeeded in recapturing the harbor and part of the city of Smyrna, though this only temporarily hampered the Begs. A noteworthy complication at the time was the civil war in Romania between John V Palaeologus and John VI Cantacuzenus. Cantacuzenus cultivated Turkish allies, including the Ottoman Amīr Orkhān and Umur I of Aydın.
Ṣarukhān Oghulları
Ṣarukhān Begc.1313-c.1348
Ilyās Fakhr ad-Dīnc.1348-1357
Isḥāq Chelebi Muz.affar ad-Dīn1357-c.1388
Khiḍr Shāh1388-1390, 1404-1410
Conquest by Bāyezīd I, 1390
restoration by Tamerlane, 1402; annexation by Meḥmed I, 1410
This was a disastrous error, since Ottoman troops were thus introduced into Europe. They stayed. The Beys of Aydın also illustrate the temporary setback suffered by the Ottomans. The defeat of Bāyezīd I by Tamerlane led to the brief reëtablishment (1402-1426) of the Aydın Oghulları.

The Ṣarukhān Oghulları ruled immediately north of Aydın, in what had been Greek Magnesia. They shared the fate of Aydın in Ottoman conquest, restoration, and conquest again. This pattern continues with most of the Oghullar below.

Menteshe Oghulları
Menteshe Begc.1280-c.1296
Orkhan Shujā'ud-Dīnc.1319-c.1344
Muhammad, & Tāj ud-Dīn Aḥmadc.1360-1391
Conquest by Bāyezīd I, 1391
Ilyās Muz.affar ad-Dīn or Shujā'ud-Dīn1402-1421
restoration by Tamerlane, 1402
Layth and Aḥmad1421-1424
annexation by Murād II, 1424

Germiyān Oghulları
Ya'qūb ʿAlī Shīrc.1299-c.1327
Muḥammad Chakhshadānc.1327-c.1363
Sulaymān Shāhc.1363-1387
Ya'qūb II Chelebi1387-1390, 1402-1411, 1413-1428
Conquest by Bāyezīd I, 1390; restoration by Tamerlane, 1402; occupation by Qaramānids, 1411-1413; annexation by Murād II, 1428
The Menteshe Oghulları, in Classical Caria and around Miletus, were immediately to the south of Aydın. Up behind all the coastal states were the Germiyān Oghulları, in the Classical Lydia and Phrygia. As with many of the Ohgullar, the Germinyān were originally a Turkish or Turkomen tribe in service to the Seljuks. Settled in the west as vassals of the Seljuks, the independent Beylik and first controlled the coast, but then was pushed back as separate states developed there.

Ḥamīd Oghulları
Dündār Beg Falak ad-Dīnc.1301-1324
Occupation by Il Khāns, 1324-1327
Khiḍr Beg1327-1328
Isḥāq Najm ad-Dīn1328-1344
Muṣṭafā Muaz.affar ad-Dīnc.1344-?
Ilyās Ḥusām ad-Dīn?-c.1374
Ḥusayn Kamāl ad-Dīnc.1374-1391
Conquest by Bāyezīd I, 1391

The Ḥamīd Oghulları began with a Seljuk vassal, Ilyās ibn Ḥamīd. With the Seljuk collapse his two sons established adjacent Beyliks, inland in Classical
Tekke Oghulları
Khiḍr sinan ad-Dīn1327-c.1372
Muḥammad Mubāriz ad-Dīnc.1372-c.1378
'Uthmān Chelebi?-1391, 1402-1423
Conquest by Bāyezīd I, 1391; restoration by Tamerlane, 1402; annexation by Murād II, 1423
Pisidia, and allong the coast in Classical Pamphylia and Lycia -- starting the Tekke Oghulları. Both states were taken by Bāyezīd, and only one was temporarily restored by Tamerlane.

Jāndār Oghulları
Yaman Jādār Shams ad-Dīn1292-c.1308
Sulaymān I Shujā'ud-Dīnc.1308-c.1340
Ibrāhīm Ghiyāth ad-Dīnc.1340-1345
Bāyazīd Kötörüm Jalāl ad-Dīnc.1361-1384
Sulaymān II Shāh1384-1385
Isfandiyār Mubāriz ad-Dīn1385-1393, 1402-1440
Conquest by Bāyezīd I, 1393; restoration by Tamerlane, 1402
Ibrāhīm Tāj ad-Dīn1440-1443
Ismā'īl Kamāl ad-Dīn1443-1461
Qızıl Aḥmad1461-1462
annexation by Meḥmed II, 1462

The domain of the Jāndār Oghulları was along the Black Sea coast, Classical Paphlagonia. They were at first vassals of the Il Khāns but became independent with their collapse.
Qaramān Oghulları
Qaramān Nūr ad-Dīn or Nūra Ṣūfīc.1256-1261
Muḥammad I Shams ad-Dīn1261-1278
Güneri Beg1278-1300
Maḥmud Badr ad-Dīn1300-1307
Ibrāhim I Badr ad-Dīnc.1317-1344/49
Aḥmad Kakhr ad-Dīn1344/49-1349
Shams ad-Dīn1349-1352
Conquest by Bāyezīd I, 1398
Muḥammad II1402-1419, 1441-1423
Restoration by Tamerlane, 1402
ʿAlī1419-1421, 1423-1424
Ibrāhīm II Tāj ad-Dīn1424-1464
Pīr Aḥmad1464-1475
annexation by Meḥmed II, 1475
Although falling to the Ottomans, the Jāndār family nevertheless became successful serving them.

The Qaramān Oghulları were a vigorous state and stood a good chance of becoming the dominant successors of the Seljuks. They even became the heirs of the Seljuk capital of Konya (Iconium). However, they were still no match for the the Ottomans. They lost Ankara (Angora), the ancient capital of Galatia, in 1354, and fell altogether to Bāyezīd in 1398. Restored by Tamerlane, they had to go through the experience all over again.

Dulghadır Oghulları
Qaraja ibn Dulghadır al-Malik az-Z.āhir Zayn ad-Dīn1337-1353
Khalīl Ghars ad-Dīn1353-1386
Sha'bān Sūlī1386-1398
Muḥammad Nāṣir ad-Dīn1398-1442
Malid Arslan1454-1465
Shāh Budaq1465-1466, 1472-1479
Shāh Suwār1466-1472
Bozqurd ʿAlā'ud-Dawla1479-1515
annexation by Süleymān I, 1521

Of all the Oghullar, the Dulghadır Oghulları, sharing the Taurus with Lesser Armenia, held out the longest against the Ottomans, with help as vassals of the White Sheep Turks and the Mamlüks. Even after conquering the Mamlūks and pushing into Mesopotamia, Selim the Grim seems to have tolerated them, though they didn't last long into the reign of Süleymān the Magnicient.

Finally, we come to the Eretna Oghulları, who in 1361 controlled a large area in the north-east of the old domain of Rüm. This actually overlapped Classical Galatia, Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, and Helenopontus and put them adjacent to the Il Khān heirs, the white Sheep Turks. Their local capital was Sivas (Sebastea) and then Kayseri (Caesarea, in Cappadocia).
Eretna Oghulları
Eretna ʿAlā'ud-Dīn1336-1352
Muḥammad I Ghiyāth ad-Dīn1352-1366
ʿAlī ʿAlā'ud-Dīn1366-1380
Muḥammad II Chelebi1380
Succession of Qāḍī Burhān ad-Dīn Oghulları, 1380
Aḥmad Qāḍī Burhān ad-Dīn1380-1398
killed by White Sheep Turks, 1398
ʿAlī Zayn ad-'Âbidīn ʿAlā' ad-Dīn1398
annexation by Bāyezīd I, 1398

The Eretna Begs were succeeded by their own Vizir, Qāḍī Burhān ad-Dīn, who founds his own, short-lived Oghullar. Killed fighting the White Sheep Turks, he was briefly followed by his son before his commanders surrendered the domain the Ottomans.

There were other Oghullar states that briefly followed the ones given here, and some earlier Seljuk domains that were for a time rivals of Rūm, but the representatives of the year 1361 certainly convey the idea of the complexity of the period, before a uniformity of Ottoman government was imposed that continues, in effect, down to the present day. The fragmentation of the Oghullar is reminiscent of the period of the Reyes de Taifas (mulūk aṭ-Ṭawā'if) in Spain. However, none of the Spanish states was ever able to predominate, and Islamic Spain only survived against the Reconquista as long as outside power, the Almoravids and Almohads, contributed their strength. Without them, Islamic Spain collapsed. With the Oghullar, however, not only did one of them, the Ottomans, predominate, but they grew into one of the great empires of history, surviving into the 20th century.

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