Francia Media, Lorraine

When the Emperor Lothar I died in 855, his "middle kingdom" (Francia Media) was divided between his three sons:  (1) Louis II received Italy and the Imperial crown, (2) Charles, Burgundy, and (3) Lothar II what was left, the area from Burgundy down to the North Sea. There was no traditional name for such an area, so it came to be called after Lothar II himself:  Lotharingia. This has become Lothringen in German and Lorraine in French and English. The lack of male heirs for all these meant that Italy, Burgundy, and Lorraine all were subsequently divided and passed around among the Carolingian heirs of East and West. Lorraine soon lost independent status and became a dependency, a Stem Duchy, of the East Frankish Kingdom, except briefly when it adhered to the West (911-925). The Duchy itself then became divided between the south, or Upper Lorraine, and the north, or Lower Lorraine (959). "Upper" and "Lower" were in the relation to the river systems in the area, which flow north.

The heart of Upper Lorraine was Nancy (Nanzig in German, Nanciacum in Latin, although this was not a Roman city; it dates from 1050, founded by the Duke Gerard), in a bend of the Moselle (Mosel in German, Mosella in Latin) River. Upper Lorraine originally extended all the way down to the Rhine on the Moselle and included Trier,
Fiefs of Lorraine
Duchy of Lorraine
Duchy of Upper Lorraine
Duchy of Lower Lorraine
County & Duchy of Brabant
County & Duchy of Bar
Prince-Bishops of Liège
Prince-Bishops of Cologne & Trier
County of Hainault
Counts & Dukes of Berg, Jülich, Mark, & Cleves
County & Duchy of Luxemburg
County of Holland
Republic & Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of Belgium
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
but the border gradually retreated up river, and Trier itself became an independent Ecclesiastical Electorate of the Empire. Also on the Moselle are Épinal, Toul (Tullum Leucorum in Latin), and Metz (Divodurum in Latin).

Upper Lorraine bordered, to the east, on Alsace, part of the Duchy of Swabia, to the south, on the Free County of Burgundy, and to the west, on Champagne. The western border was originally between the Marne and the Meuse (Maas in Dutch and German, Mosa in Latin). Significant cities on the Meuse are Verdun (Wirten in German, Verodunum in Latin), Sedan (where the Germans defeated France in 1870 and crossed the Meuse with Panzers in 1940), Namur, Liège (Luik in Dutch or Flemish, Lüttich in German, & Leodium in Latin), and Maastricht (Mosae Trajectum in Latin, i.e. "crossing of the Meuse"). Near Sedan is Rocroi, where the Spanish Army was destroyed by France in 1643. Near Liège and Maastricht is Aachen, Aix-la-Chappelle in French (either Aquis Granum or Aquis Villa in Latin, Aken in Dutch, Oche in the local Rhenish Franconian dialect of German), which was the capital of Charlemangne. From there the river continues down through the Netherlands into the North Sea.

By 1301, France obtained suzerainty over Bar west of the Meuse, which brought the border of the Kingdom of France to the Meuse itself (more or less). In 1648, France obtained key bridgeheads over the Meuse at Verdun and over the Moselle at Toul and Metz, both deep in Lorraine itself -- all with the justification that the area was French speaking. The Duchy was clearly the target of French ambitions, and the whole of it was occupied several times and finally annexed in 1766. After the Franco-Prussian War, Germany retrieved the part of Lorraine around Metz, until after World War I.

Meanwhile, it was gradually forgotten that Lower Lorraine had been Lorraine at all. The Duchy proper came to be the equivalent of the Duchy of Brabant, and the Low Countries developed their own identity, especially as possessions of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy. Most of what was originally Lower Lorraine is now independent as the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg (though Luxembourg may originally have been part of Upper Lorraine). Nevertheless, the Cross of Lorraine, used by Charles de Gaulle for the Free French forces of World War II, and associated with Joan (Jeanne) of Arc (from Domremy on the Meuse) -- both in relation to Upper Lorraine -- goes back, apparently, to a Duke of Lower Lorraine, Godfrey of Bouillon, the leader of the First Crusade who became the first Crusader ruler of Jerusalem. Today, the Low Countries are the most densely populated of Europe, and among the most prosperous. Luxembourg has the highest per capita income in the world, both absolutely and in relation to purchasing power. Belgium, although troubled with high unemployment, is the administrative center of the European Union.

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Copyright (c) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved

Dukes of Lorraine,
Dukes of Upper & Lower Lorraine

Although it began as a Kingdom on equal footing with Burgundy and Italy, or, for that matter, with West Francia (France) and East Francia (Germany), Lorraine eventually lost this status and became a dependency of the Eastern Kingdom (900), albeit with the new elevated status of a Duchy, one of the Stem Duchies of Germany. The Duchy then soon divided, into Upper Lorraine and Lower Lorraine (959). These went their separate ways, with Lower Lorraine eventually losing its identity into Brabant and Upper Lorraine becoming simply "Lorraine" proper. The whole area fragmented in typical feudal fashion. France began to encroach in the south, and in 1648 began the encirclement and consumption of the Duchy of Lorraine with gains in Alsace. By the end of the reign of Louis XIV, Alsace was completely French (although German speaking and disaffected, and with a Jewish population that had earlier been expelled from France) and Lorraine had been occupied several times. Louis XV would finish the job in 1766. The French also had designs on the Lower domains, with the goal of restoring the Rhine frontier of Roman Gaul. The goal was achieved during the era of the French Revolution, but in the end that was reversed, thanks to the defeat of Napoleon; and the French assault on the Low Countries was finally less successful than to the south, despite considerably more open war over the centuries. The Dutch, who had rebelled against Hapsburg Spain, ended up as allies of Spain and Austria in holding the line against France. Flanders (detached from France itself), Hainault, Brabant, and more -- the Spanish Netherlands -- passed to Austria (1713), then to the Netherlands (1815), and finally became independent as Belgium (1830). Even then, it was twice an avenue of invasion for Germany into France (1914 & 1940). Engulfed by France, (Upper) Lorraine fades from memory, now usually only remembered in relation to the part that was held by Germany from 1871 to 1918. That was the part that, like Alsace, may still have been least partly German speaking. But no plebiscite was ever held in Lorraine (or in Alsace), either when it was taken by Germany or when returned to France. Today, the Low Countries, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, are the most populous part of Europe and major centers of industry. Luxembourg actually has the highest per capita income in the world. In economic freedom, the Netherlands and Luxembourg rate even with the United States, though Belgium is burdened with socialist inhibitions about as much as Germany. Belgium is also the seat of the Parliament for the whole European Union.

Dukes of Lotharingia,
Lothringen, or Lorraine
ZwentiboldKing,
895-900
Gebhard of FranconiaDuke,
900-910
Reginar Longneck
of Mons
911-915
adheres to West Francia, 911
Gilbert (Giselbert)
of Mons
916-939
returned to East Francia, 925;
son-in-law of Emperor Henry I, 928
Henry940, d.955
Otto of Verdun940-944
Conrad I the Red944-953,
d.955
son-in-law of Emperor Otto I
great-grandfather of
Emperor Conrad II
St. Bruno the Great953-959,
d.965
The last time Lorraine was a united and separate kingdom was under Zwentibold, the illegitimate son of the Emperor Arnulf. When Zwentibold died in 900, a German nobleman, Gebhard of Franconia, was appointed by the East Frankish court. Gebhard was thus no King but was beginning to be called a Dux (Herzog), the title of a Roman frontier military commander. Before long, this became the special title for one of the divisions of East Francia, the Stem Duchies. Lorraine thus became a "duchy." After the death of the last Eastern Carolingian, Louis the Child, in 911, Lorraine became for a while a matter of dispute between Eastern and Western Franks, with the power of local nobility consequently becoming more important. After Gebhard, chief among these was Rainier (or Reginar) of Mons (or Maasgau). Rainier transferred the allegiance of Lorraine to the West Frankish Carolingian, Charles (III) the Simple. In 923 Charles was deposed in the West by the Count of Paris, but Lorraine remained faithful to him until 925. Then Rainier's son Giselbert (Gislebert or Gilbert) returned to the East Frankish King, now Henry I of Saxony. Giselbert thus stands as the first Duke of Lorraine for its subsequent history as a division of East Francia (Germany).

Although Hainault (Hennegau) continued for some time in the family of Rainier, the Duchy of Lorraine itself fell to the disposal of the East Frankish Kings, who preferred to have in-laws or relatives in control, though this did not always guarantee loyalty, as the revolt of Conrad the Red demonstrated. The brother of Otto I, Archbishop Bruno (or Brun) was loyal and kept the peace. In 959 he also divided the Duchy, into Upper Lorraine (Oberlothringen) and Lower Lorraine (Niederlothringen), a division that had become permanent by 1044.
Oberlothringen,
Upper Lorraine
Niederlothringen,
Lower Lorraine
Frederick I of
the Ardennes
Upper Lorraine
959-978;
Margrave
until 965
Godfrey I
of Metz
& Hainault
Lower Lorraine
959-964,
Margrave
Richard/RicharLower Lorraine
964-972,
Margrave
Thierry/
Dietrich I
Upper Lorraine
978-1026,
Duke
Charles
the Carolingian
Lower Lorraine
977-991, Duke
Frederick IIUpper Lorraine
1026/27
Otto the
Carolingian
Lower Lorraine
991-1012
Frederick IIIUpper Lorraine
1026/27-1033
Godfrey I (II)
of Verdun
Lower Lorraine
1012-1023
Upper Lorraine
1033-1044
Gozelo (Gothelo) I of VerdunLower Lorraine
1023-1044
Upper Lorraine
1044-1047
Godfrey II (III)
the Bearded
Gozelo II
the Sluggard
Lower Lorraine
1044-1046
Adalbert
of Metz
Frederick
of Luxemburg
Lower Lorraine
1046-1065
Lower Lorraine
1065-1069
Upper Lorraine
1047-1048
Godfrey III (IV)
the Hunchback
Lower Lorraine
1069-1076
Gerard of MetzUpper Lorraine
1048-1070
Thierry/
Dietrich II
Upper Lorraine
1070-1115
Conrad,
VII of Franconia
Lower Lorraine
1076-1087,
d.1101
son of Emperor Henry IV
Godfrey IV (V)
of Bouillon
Lower Lorraine
1087-1100
Protector of
Jerusalem,
1099-1100
Henry I
of Limburg
Lower Lorraine
1101-1106,
d.1119
Simon IUpper Lorraine
1115-1139
Godfrey V (VI)
the Bearded,
Count of
Louvain/Löwen
& Brabant
Lower Lorraine
1106-1128,
d.1139
brother of Thierry,
Count of Flanders
Walram
of Limburg
Lower Lorraine
1128-1139
Matthew IUpper Lorraine
1139-1176
Godfrey VII,
Count of
Louvain &
Brabant
Lower Lorraine
1139-1142
Godfrey VIIILower Lorraine
1142-1183,
d.1190
Simon IIUpper Lorraine
1176-1205,
d.1207
Henry IIDuke of Lower
Lorraine
& Brabant
1183-1235
Frederick I
(Ferry) (IV)
Upper Lorraine
1205-1206,
d.1207
Frederick II
(Ferry) (V)
of Bitsch
Upper Lorraine
1206-1213
Thiébaut
Theobald I
Upper Lorraine
1213-1220
Matthew IIUpper Lorraine
1220-1251
Henry IIILower Lorraine
& Brabant
1235-1248
Frederick III
(Ferry) (VI)
Upper Lorraine
1251-1303
Henry IVLower Lorraine
& Brabant
1248-1261
Henry VLower Lorraine
& Brabant
1261-1267,
d.1272
John/Johann/
Jan I the
Victorious
Brabant
1267-1294;
Duchy of Lower
Lorraine lapses;
Duke of
Limburg, 1283
Thiébaut
Theobald II
Upper Lorraine
1304-1312,
continued as
Lorraine
John II
the Peaceful
Brabant
& Limburg
1294-1312
Frederick IV
(Ferry) (VII)
Lorraine
1312-1328
John III
the Triumphant
Brabant
& Limburg
1312-1355
Rudolf1328-1346Joan/JohannaDuchess of
Brabant
& Limburg
1355-1404,
d.1406
John I1346-1390
Charles I
the Bold
1390-1431Wenceslas
of Luxemburg
Duke of
Luxemburg
1353-1383, &
Brabant
1355-1383
MargaretBrabant
& Limburg
1404-1405
Anthony of
Burgundy
Brabant
& Limburg
1405-1415
William/John IVBrabant
& Limburg
1415-1427
Philip of St.PolBrabant
& Limburg
1427-1430
Isabel/
Isabella
1431-1453Philip the Good
of Burgundy
Duke of
Burgundy
1419-1467
Brabant
& Limburg
1430-1467
Marries René
the Good of Anjou
Union of Brabant,
Limburg, & Burgundy, 1430

There seems to be some confusion about the earliest years of Lower Lorraine -- or at least it has not always been easy getting the picture from my sources. Both of the Stammtafeln cited below, Adreas Thiele and Michael F. Feldkamp, do not give any Dukes before Charles the Carolingian. This bumps around the subsequent numbering of the Godfreys, of whom there are many. In those terms, one is left with the impression that St. Bruno retained Lower Lorraine until this death, which would leave a considerable hiatus, 965-977. Nothing wrong with that; but Bruce R. Gordon does give the intermediate Dukes listed above. Now I also find them at Wikipedia with a bit more explanation. Bruno did not formally abdicate from either Upper or Lower Lorraine, but he did appoint vice-Dukes or Margraves, Frederick of the Ardennes and Godfrey of Metz. Godfrey was also the Count of Hainault, and I originally had him confused with a cousin of Frederick, Godfrey "the Prisoner" of Verdun. Now they seem different, although Thiele says that Godfrey was also Count of Hainault, 959-978. Perhaps I am not the only one confused here. Godfrey's successor, Richar, seems to be of obscure origin, and it is after him that we do get a short interregnum, 972-977, before Charles the Carolingian.

The "Cross of Lorraine" is supposed to have been used by Godfrey of Bouillon on the First Crusade. The upper bar may render the plaque (the Titulus) that announced Jesus "King of the Jews." Later the cross was adopted by Charles de Gaulle as the symbol of the Free French in World War II. The association here may be with the "Maid of Lorraine," who was supposed to have been foretold by Merlin to deliver France from her enemies -- and was then identified as Joan of Arc (d.1431).

In classic feudal fashion, the holdings of the actual Dukes of Upper and Lower Lorraine shrank to a mere core of the Duchies, as peripheral fiefs became alienated. Upper Lorraine retreated from the Rhine and acquired local rivals in the form of the Dukes of Luxemburg. When Lower Lorraine fell to the Counts of Brabant, they promoted Brabant to a Duchy. In time the identity of Lower Lorraine lapsed and the Dukes were simply the Dukes of Brabant.

Brabant eventually fell to the Dukes of Burgundy, along with Flanders, a fief of France, and other former fiefs of Lower Lorraine, Hainault, Holland, Limburg, Namur, and Luxemburg. Ironically, this has conferred an identity on the Low Countries as "Burgundian" even though previously they had nothing to do with Burgundy, which was merely adjacent to Lorraine to the south. The attempt of Charles the Bold of Burgundy to bring Upper Lorraine into his domain (1475), and so to reunite the whole original Duchy, resulted in his death in battle at Nancy in 1477 -- an event that brought the Hapsburgs into the Low Countries. Eventually this meant that the Spanish Army in the Netherlands worse the red "Cross of Burgundy" as its insignia.

In the same era, Upper Lorraine itself, henceforth Lorraine proper, passed by marriage to the French Dukes of Anjou and Bar. This made Lorraine, which was largely French speaking itself, increasingly a part of French history and a target for acquisition by the French Crown. Nevertheless, the heiress of Anjou, Yolande, married her own cousin, who was a descendant in the male line from John I of Lorraine. The subsequent house of Anjou-Lorraine thus was still the patrilineal House of Metz. Even later, the House of Lorraine-Hapsburg was still actually the House of Metz.

Upper Lorraine begins with the House of the Ardennes, which accounts for all the Dukes down to Adelbert of Metz, and many of the Dukes of Lower Lorraine. It should be noted that Count Siegfried founds the line of Luxemburg. The Ardennes genealogy ends here with Godfrey of Bouillon, who leads the First Crusade. He becomes "Protector" of Jerusalem, but his brother Baldwin founds the line of Kings of Jerusalem. The Counts of Metz lead to all the later Dukes of Upper Lorraine and of Lorraine. An earlier "Godfrey of Metz" is given by some sources as Duke of Lower Lorraine, 959-964, but I have been unable to confirm this. The House of Metz also becomes, for a while, the rulers of Flanders.


Liège was a bishopric in Lower Lorraine that grew into an eccesiastical state with secular authority, such as would become common in the Empire. Bishop Notger began the secular power of the bishopric in 980 when he became Count of Huy. Eventually, the domain of the Bishop stretched in a thin band north to south entirely across what would be the modern territory of Belgium. Liège itself remains one of the major cities on the Meuse River. Given the linguistic complexity of the region, we get multiple versions of the name of the city. In Latin, it is Leodium. In Dutch and Flemish it is Luik. In French, until 1949 the city was Liége, but then the accent was shifted from acute to grave. In the dialect of French in Belgium, however, Walloon, the name is Lidje. English now uses the French name; but there used to be an English version of the Dutch name, Luick. And then there is the name in German, Lüttich.

Prince-Bishops
of Liège,
972-1794
Notger972-1008
Baldrick II1008-1018
Wolbodo1018-1021
Durandus1021-1025
Reginard1025-1037
Nithard1037-1042
Wazo1042-1048
Theodwin1048-1075
Henry of Verdun1075-1091
Otbert1091-1119
Frederick of Namur1119-1121
Albero I of Leuven1122-1128
Alexander I1128-1135
Albero II of Chiny-Namur1135-1145
Henry II of Leez1145-1164
Alexander II1164-1167
Rudolf of Zähringen1167-1191
Saint Albert of Leuven1191-1192
Lothaire of Hochstaden1192-1193
Simon of Limbourg1193-1195
Albert of Cuyck1195-1200
Hugh of Pierrepont1200-1229
John of Eppes1229-1238
William of Savoy1238-1239
Robert of Thourotte1240-1246
Henry of Guelders1247-1274
John of Enghien1274-1281
John of Flanders1282-1291
Hugh of Chalon1295-1301
Adolph of Waldeck1301-1302
Thibaut of Bar1302-1312
Adolph of La Marck1313-1344
Englebert of La Marck1345-1364
John of Arckel1364-1378
Arnold of Hornes1378-1389
John of Bavaria1389-1418
John of Walenrode1418-1419
John of Heinsberg1419-1455
Louis of Bourbon1456-1482
John of Hornes1484-1505
Erard of La Marck1505-1538
Corneille of Berghes1538-1544
George of Austria1544-1557
Robert of Berghes1557-1564
Gerard of Grœsbeek1564-1580
Ernest of Bavaria1581-1612
Ferdinand of Bavaria1612-1650
Maximilian Henry of Bavaria1650-1688
John Louis of Elderen1688-1694
Joseph Clemens of Bavaria1694-1723
Georges-Louis de Berghes1724-1743
Jean-Théodore of Bavaria1744-1763
Charles- Nicolas d'Oultremont1763-1771
François- Charles de Velbruck1772-1784
César- Constantin- François de Hœnsbrœck1784-1792
François- Antoine-Marie de Méan1792-1794
occupied by France, 1974; annexed to France, 1795; the Netherlands, 1815; Belgium, 1830
Through most of its history, Liège, as an ecclesiastical state, may have remained relatively immune to the events swirling around it. Nevertheless, it occasionally became a target in the conflicts of the area, being destroyed by Louis XI of France and Charles the Bold of Burgundy in 1468, and then captured by the Duke of Marlborough in 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession -- because at that point the Prince- Bishop, Joseph Clemens, was a Wittelsbach, the family of the Dukes of Bavaria, who were allies of the French. The last Prince-Bishops became enthusiasts of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; but then the Revolution devoured such an anachronism as the ecclesiastical state. Liège became part of France, with its Rhine frontier, until the overthrow of Napoleon.

In all of history, however, never did Liège have a more important moment than in August 1914, long after the days of the Prince-Bishops. The Right Wing of the German Army, intending to invade France through Belgium, planned to cross the Meuse at Liège. The Belgians had built twelve forts ringing the city. The forts were not entirely up to date, but it was expected that they were good enough to seriously slow the German advance -- the Germans were hoping that the Belgians would not fight and were rather indignant when they did. It had taken the Japanese nine months to take the Russian forts at Port Arthur in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). However, there would be significant differences in the siege of Liège. One reason the Japanese siege took so long was that their siege guns had been sunk at sea. It took six months just to reassemble batteries and get them to Port Arthur. Even so, it was still relatively slow work. But the Germans knew that and were prepared. The Austrians had designed a 305mm (12-inch) mortar and built it at their Skoda works. As the war began, Krupp had just finished manufacturing a larger gun, 420mm (16.5-inch), for Germany. Guns this size were nothing extraordinary on battleships, but moving them around on land was a challenge. It was like moving an obelisk. Initially, like the Japanese, the Germans hoped that they could take the forts by infantry assault. Like the Japanese, again, the Germans found that they were repulsed with heavy casualties from the forts. This heartened the Belgians and the Allies. The Germans then threatened to bomb Liège with Zepplins unless the city surrendered. It didn't, and the Germans were as good as their word, beginning the 20th Century indiscriminate bombing of a civilian target on August 6, 1914. Nine citizens were killed. Soon, the Germans got through between the forts, and took the city of Liège. Then the siege guns came up. By August 16th, all the forts had been beaten into submission and had either surrendered or were taken by assault. On that day, the last fort, Loncin, blew up, almost killing the Belgian commander at Liège, General Leman, who, buried in rubble, was then captured by the Germans. The Germans went on with their invasion of France. This actually only delayed the German timetable by a couple of days, but even that might have made a difference in the subsequent Battle of the Marne which defeated the German war plan.


 
After the death of Godfrey of Bouillon, Lower Lorraine passes from the House of the Ardennes. There is briefly a tug-of-war between the Counts of Limburg and those of Louvain (Löwen) and Brabant, calling on different sides in the dynastic struggles going on in
Germany, before the Brabant line establishes itself. Eventually, in 1283, Limburg itself falls to the Dukes of Brabant. That is also about the time that Lower Lorraine loses its own identity in that of Brabant.

The chart here begins with the derivation of the house of Hainault (Hennegau) and Louvain, which begins at Mons (Maasgau), includes a couple Dukes of Lorraine, and then divides into Louvain and Hainault. The genealogy of the Counts of Hainault continues with the genealogy of Flanders and then on the page for Hainault itself.

When the male line of Brabant fails, one heiress, Johanna, marries Wenceslas of Luxemburg but has no children, and then her sister, Margaret, marries the Count of Flanders, Louis II of Mâle. Their daughter Margaret, the heiress of Flanders and Brabant then marries the first Valois Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Bold. This adds much of the old Lower Lorraine to the Burgundian inheritance, which ends up in the hands of the Hapsburgs.

Today, Louvain (Leuven in Flemish, Löwen in German), Hainault, Limburg, and Brabant are all in Belgium. The major city of Brabant is now Brussels, the capital of Belgium.

The genealogy of Mons, Louvain, Hainault, Limburg, and Brabant is drawn from the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume II Part 1, Europäische Kaiser-, Königs, und Fürstenhäuser I Westeuropa [Andreas Thiele, Third Edition, R. G. Fischer Verlag, 2001, pp.14, 16-18, & 20-25].

I have found it infuriatingly difficult to piece together the early history of Lorraine, which tends to fall between the stools in histories of France or Germany. The list of Dukes was originally constructed simply using Brian Tompsett's Royal and Noble genealogy. I was able to add some details and alternative names from Bruce R. Gordon's Regnal Chronologies. For a while the only real history of the early Duchies that I was able to find was part of the Geschichte des Herzogtums Lothringen, by Walter Mohr [Verlag "die Mitte", Saarbrücken], Teil I. Geschichte des Herzogtums Groß-Lothringen (900-1048) [1974] and Teil II. Niederlothringen bis zu seinem Aufgehen im Herzogtum Brabant (11-13.Jahrhundert) [1976]. Two further volumes carry the history down to 1670, but Mohr does not provide much in the way of helpful supplements. Only Volume II has a map (without boundaries) and a list of rulers, and there are no genealogical charts. The list, however, is especially useful, since the Dukes of Lower Lorraine from 1046 to 1139 were a mixture of different families, most of whom are difficult to find, if they are there, in Thompsett's database. An English narrative of the early history of Lorraine is now available in The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, c.900-c.1024 [Timothy Reuter, editor, Cambridge, 1999, pp.310-327]. At least one detail on the genealogical chart [p.697, on Dukes Godfrey I and Gozelo I], however, contradicts the plain statement of the text [p.322]. The obscurity of the history of Lower Lorraine seems especially unfortunate considering that today its territories are largely independent in the form of the modern Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. The Low Countries are what remain of an independent Lorraine, though they are really never referred to that way. Burgundy, if anything, is what is remembered. After all this trouble piecing things together, now I have been able to obtain the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume I Part 1, Deutsche Kaiser-, Königs, Herzogs- und Grafenhäuser I [Andreas Thiele, Third Edition, R. G. Fischer Verlag, 1997], which covers Lorraine from pages 63 to 76. With this detailed source I have produced the genealogical diagrams for Lorraine (and Bar) before the house of Anjou-Lorraine (which I had constructed from the earlier sources).

The history of the County and Duchy of Bar is an important part of the history of Lorraine and so is included here, before passing on to the house of Anjou-Lorraine below. The Duke Frederick I of Upper Lorraine (959-978) builds a fortress at Bar, now the modern city of Bar-le-Duc, because this lay on the border with the West Frankish Kingdom (i.e. France), although at the time there was no threat from that direction,
Counts &
Dukes of Bar
Rainald ICount,
1102-1149
Rainald II1149-1170
Henry I1170-1190
Theobald I1190-1214
Count of
Luxemburg,
1197-1214
Henry II1214-1239
Theobald II1239-1291
Henry III1291-1302
Vassal of France,
1301
Edward I1302-1336
Henry IV1336-1344
Edward II1344-1352
Robert1352-1411,
Duke, 1354
Edward III1411-1415
Louis1415-1431
René
of Anjou
1431-1480
since the kingdom was fragmenting into its worst state of feudal particularism. In 987, Hugh Capet, Frederick's own brother-in-law, would be elected West Frankish King and begin the process of restoring royal power. Later, the Duke Frederick II (1027-1033) has a grandson, Dietrich I, who is enfeoffed with Bar. Dietrich's son Rainald then becomes the first Count of Bar.

As time passes, French royal power waxes. Count Henry III of Bar is defeated and captured by King Philip IV in 1301. Philip forced Henry into accepting that he would be a vassal of France for all of Bar west of the Meuse (Maas in German) River. This became the "royal Bar" or Barrois mouvant, "dependant Bar." Bar east of the Meuse, still in the Duchy of Lorraine, was then "ducal Bar" or Barrois non mouvant, "non-dependant Bar" (St-Mihiel, Pont-à-Mousson, & Longwy) This alteration was both the symbolic and real beginning of the French move to the East, into the lands of historic Lotharingia. The boundary between the two was originally about midway between the Marne and the Meuse. As Bar to the Meuse becomes a French fief, the French domain also presses towards in the Meuse around the often detached pieces of Bar. I see no account of the details of this.

It is of some interest because Joan (Jeanne) of Arc, who was identified as the foretold "Maid of Lorraine," was from the village of Domrémy, which is on the west bank of the Meuse. In 1429 Joan travels north to Vaucouleurs, also on the west bank of the Meuse, in order to get an escort to see King Charles VII. This city was in between northern (Ligny-en-Barrois) and southern (Gondrecourt) fragments of Bar. I would like to know when (if it did) it came under French royal control. I have some maps that show both Vaucouleurs and Domrémy in Bar itself. However, we have the testimony of Joan in her own words about the status of Domrémy, for she testified, "This voice... told me it was necessary for me to come into France... it said to me two or three times a week: 'You must go into France'." So, if she must leave Domrémy to "go into France," Domrémy cannot yet have been in France already.

The next significant events are the inheritance of Bar by the Anjou Duke of Lorraine, René I, and then the reversion of the Lands of Anjou to the French Throne in 1481. Some sources say that this includes Bar. However, maps with other sources show the royal Barrois still an independent fief at the end of the 16th century. Nevertheless, subsequent maps in most sources show it under Royal control, without any indication of when the transition occurred. Ducal Bar remained, of course, a possession of the Dukes of Lorraine.

Isabel, the Heiress of Lorraine, marries a grandson of Duke Louis I of Anjou, son of King John II of France. Here the family tree for that line is given, which includes all subsequent Dukes of Lorraine, and the Dukes of Guise also, followed by the table for the Dukes of Lorraine.

Henry, 3rd Duke of Guise, pressed a claim to the French Throne, but ended up getting assassinated. His aunt, Mary of Guise, married James V of Scotland, which means that all subsequent rulers of Scotland and England, through her grandson James VI (James I of England), are her descendants. This Mary is easily confused with her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots. In the 1998 movie, Elizabeth, with Cate Blanchett, Mary puts in an appearance, without explanation. That is particularly confusing, since many people who never would have heard of Mary of Guise nevertheless might know that Elizabeth later executed Mary Queen of Scots.

René (Renatus) I the Good of Anjou1431-1453,
d.1480
John I1453-1470
Nicholas I1470-1473
Yolanda1473-1483
marries Frederick VI of Lorraine (Ferri II of Guise)
René II of Guise1473-1508
Anthony "il Buono"1508-1544
Francis I1544-1545
Nicholas II1545-1552, d.1577
Charles II1552-1608
Henry1608-1624
Nicola1624-1656
married to Charles III, Duke of Lorraine
Francis II1624-1525, d.1632
Charles III1625-1634, 1659-1675
married to Nicola, Dutchess of Lorraine; Duchy of Bar lost to France, 1634; Lorraine occupied by France, 1634-1641, 1644-1661, & 1670-1697
Nicholas Francis1634-1659, d.1670
Charles IV Leopold1675-1690
Commands Imperial Army, defeats Turks, takes Budapest, 1686; War of the League of Augsburg, 1688-1697
Leopold Joseph1690-1729
Lorraine recovered from France, 1697, occupied by France again, 1702-1714
Francis III Stephen1729-1736
Duke of Tuscany, 1738-1745
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor 1745-1765
married to Maria Theresa Hapsburg, heiress of Austria; War of the Polish Succession, 1733-1735; Lorraine to Stanislaw Lesczinski, 1736
Stanislaw Lesczinski1736-1766
Marie Lesczinskaheiress
of Lorraine
married to Louis XV of France; Lorraine Passes to France, 1766
France got its bridgehead across the Meuse in 1552, when the bishoprics of Metz, Verdun, and Toul were ceded in exchange for French help for the German Protestants against the Emperor Charles V. Charles tried to recover the cities, but failed. Then, in 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia, ending the Thirty Years War, formally gave the cities to France, along with many other small territories and cities in Lorraine and Alsace, including the fortress of Belfort. Verdun was right on the east bank of the Meuse, but Metz and Toul were on the Moselle (Mosel in German), the heart of Lorraine. Louis XIV managed to obtain all of Alsace in the course of his wars, but Lorraine, although frequently occupied, escaped his grasp. Alsace, of course, not in Lotharingia at all, but historically part of the Duchy of Swabia (and German speaking, unlike Lorraine), lies on the west bank of the Rhine, the goal of French ambitions to restore the ancient boundaries of Roman Gaul.

The main line of Dukes of Lorraine ends with Francis III, who married Maria Theresa of Hapsburg and thus stands at the head of the entire subsequent House of Hapsburg-Lorraine. As part of the negotiations by the Emperor Charles VI to secure Maria Theresa's inheritance (the "Pragmatic Sanction" to set aside the Salic Law against female succession), following the War of the Polish Succession (1733-1735), Francis agreed to cede Lorraine to Stanislaw Lesczinski, the unsuccessful French candidate for the Polish Throne. Since Lesczinski's daughter was the Queen of France, his death meant the acquisition of Lorraine by King Louis XV, fulfilling the longstanding French design on the Duchy. Thus, ironically, France acquires Lorraine from the French House of Anjou by way of this House becoming heirs of the Hapsburgs. The French acquisition of Lorraine alarmed Europe at the time, but nothing much could be, or was, done about it. Germans remained more incensed about the French acquisition of Alsace.

When France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), and the German Empire was created, Alsace and part of Lorraine were annexed by Germany. The heart of Lorraine, around Nancy, was left with France, but the north, around Metz, was taken. I am curious why the Germans didn't take all of it. Since most of the area was French speaking, they may have restrained themselves for that reason. Indeed, that is what it looks like. Even today, there is a population of speakers of Franconian German in the part of Lorraine east of Metz that was taken by Germany. How many there are is a matter of some dispute. In 1999 the French Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE) counted 78,000 adult speakers of Lorraine Franconian (francique mosellan, platt lorrain, or platt mosellan in French). In Alsace, about 39% of the adult population (548,000 people) still speaks Alsatian. In our time, when being ruled by someone who doesn't speak your language is generally regarded as "oppression," there is no doubt that the acquisition of Alsace by Louis XIV qualifies. What the situation was when the Germans returned is less clear, although there seems to have been little disaffection with French rule by 1870 and many French fled the areas annexed to Germany -- and Otto von Bismark personally did not want to provoke France by annexing the region. Certainly, the Franconian and Alsatian dialects of German are dying out in France among the young.

The French vowed to retrieve Alsace and Lorraine. Their prospects looked poor, as Germany grew into the most powerful state on the Continent. Confident in its power, Germany seems to have entered World War I with little in the way of war aims against France except just repeating the triumph of 1871 -- the War had actually started between Austria, Serbia, and Russia. This poorly conceived conflict would cost Germany dear. Lorraine contained a line of forts with which France hoped to hold off Germany:  at Belfort, Épinal, Toul, and Verdun. Belfort was actually in Alsace, but, as I see at Wikipedia, it was not annexed by Germany in 1871 (after withstanding a siege during the war) because it was French speaking -- more evidence that the Germans (unlike the French in 1918) were trying to follow the linguistic boundaries. Be that as it may, one of the largest battles of World War I was fought around Verdun, during most of 1916 (February 21st to December 15th). The Germans hoped that the French would exhaust themselves trying to hold the city. Well, both sides rather exhausted themselves, with more than a quarter of a million dead; but the Germans gained nothing of strategic significance. One of the most famous statements of the War is associated with Verdun. Sometimes attributed to Marshal Pétain, it was actually General Robert Nivelle who said Ils ne passeront pas ("They shall not pass"). They didn't; and after the Americans joined the War, Germany was defeated and France's borders of 1870 were restored. Reannexed by Hitler, 1940-1945, the conflict over Alsace and Lorraine now seems likely to be only of historical interest.

The list had some additional corrections from the Regentenlisten und Stammtafeln zur Geschichte Europas by Michael F. Feldkamp [Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart, 2002, pp.286-291].
 
Lorraine Index

Stem Duchies Index

Francia Index

Counts of Hainault
(Hainaut, Hennegau, Henegouwen)
908-1433 AD

Counts of Hainault
Sigehard908-920
Hagenon920-923
Rainier of Mons
(Rainald/Reginar) II
923-932
Rainier III932-958,
973?
Godfrey I of MetzMons,
958-964
RicherusMons,
965-973
Godfrey II of VerdunMons,
c.976-998
Rainier IV998-1013
Rainier V1013-1040
Hernan1040-1049
Richildis1040-1070
d.1076/86
Baldwin I,
VI of Flanders
1051-1070
Arnulf,
III of Flanders
1070-1071
Baldwin II
of Jerusalem
1071-1098
Baldwin III1098-1120
Baldwin IV1120-1171
Baldwin V,
VIII of Flanders
1171-1194
Baldwin VI,
IX of Flanders
1194-1202
Johanna of Flanders1202-1244
Margaret I, of Flanders1244-1280
John of Avesnes1244-1257
John I of Avesnes,
II of Holland
1280-1304
William I the Good,
III of Holland
1304-1337
William II,
IV of Holland
1337-1345
Margaret II1345-1356
Louis of Bavaria,
IV of the Empire
1345-1347
William III,
V of Holland
1347-1389
Albert1389-1404
William IV,
VI of Holland
1404-1417
Jacqueline of Holland1417-1433,
d.1436
Annexed to Burgundy
Hainault was a small County of Lorraine adjacent to Flanders. "Hainault" is the form of the name in English. The same name is now Hainaut in French (the most commonly used), Hennegau in German, Henegouwen in Dutch (and so Flemish), Hinnot in Walloon (i.e. the local dialect of French), and Hénau in Picard (another dialect of French, west and south of Walloon). The real founder of Hainault, Rainier (Reginar) I of
Mons (Maasgau), was a Duke of Lorraine and the father of Duke Giselbert of Lorraine. His younger son, Rainier II, inherited Hainault.

My information on these early Counts has been sketchy. Rainier I's grandfather was the Emperor Lothar I, through his mother, who is either unidentified or given as Irmengard (Ermengarde), which may or may not be a confusion with her mother, Irmengard of Tours, or grandmother (Lother's wife), Irmengard of Hesbain. (My thanks to Dr. Catherine Judd of the University of Miami for drawing this to my attention.) His father was Giselbert of Mons. The early genealogy of this line is given with Lorraine.

Following the succession, eventually we arrive at Herman/Hernan. His wife, Richildis, becomes the heiress of Hainault when their son, Roger, becomes Bishop of Châlons. She then marries Baldwin VI of Flanders, from whom the subsequent Counts are derived. At this point the genealogy can be examined for Flanders. As Flanders passes to Robert I, Hainault is detached by the brother of Arnulf III, Baldwin II. Baldwin's descendants continued until Flanders itself is left with an heiress, Margaret, who then marries her cousin, Baldwin V of Hainault. This reunites the houses for some time, encompassing the episode of the Latin Emperors of Romania.

The union of Flanders and Hainault comes to an end when the Countess Margaret of Flanders leaves Hainault to the son of her first husband, Burchard of Avesnes, and Flanders to the son of her second husband, William of Dampierre. This divides the two counties until later reunion in the domain of Burgundy.

Margaret's first son, John of Avesnes, as it happens, predeceases her, so Hainault falls to her grandson, also John, at her death. This ends up effecting another union, since John's mother, Aleidis, was the daughter of Count Floris IV of Holland. The line of Holland dies out and, in 1399, John, through Aleidis, falls heir. Hainault is henceforth united to Holland, and the full genealogy can be examined at Holland.


Two more heiresses round out the picture. Margaret II marries the Emperor Louis IV, of the Bavarian Wittelsbachs. This line continues until Jacqueline of Holland, failing to unite her domain by marriage either to France, Brabant, or England, is deposed by Philip the Good of Burgundy. Hainault subsequently passes with the Burgundian inheritance to the Hapsburgs, ultimately to find its place, with most of Flanders, in modern Belgium.

Besides the heiresses, some of the other marriages are noteworthy, as shown in the table here. Count William I marries a sister of Philip VI of France. Even more interesting, one of his other daughters (besides Margaret II) marries King Edward III of England and is the mother of all of his children, all the predecessors of the later English houses of Lancaster and York.

The genealogy for Hainault can be found in the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume II Part 1, Europäische Kaiser-, Königs, und Fürstenhäuser I Westeuropa [Andreas Thiele, Third Edition, R. G. Fischer Verlag, 2001]. In different sources, there are uncertainties and conflicting dates, and the dates in different charts and tables here sometimes reflect those conflicts.

Lorraine Index

Francia Index

Counts & Dukes of Luxemburg
(Luxembourg, Lëtzebuerg)

Counts & Dukes
of Luxemburg
Sigfried963-998
Henry I,
V of Bavaria
998-1026
Duke of
Bavaria,
1005-1009,
1017-1026
Henry II,
VII of Bavaria
1026-1047
Duke of
Bavaria,
1042-1047
Giselbert1047-1059
Conrad ICount,
1059-1086
Henry III1086-1096
William1096-1129
Conrad II1129-1136
Henry IV
the Blind
of Namur
1136-1196
Ermesinde II1196-1247
TheobaldDuke of Bar,
1190-1214
1197-1214
Walram, IV
of Limburg
1214-1226
Duke of
Limburg,
1221-1226
Henry V
of Limburg
1247-1281
Henry VI1281-1288
Henry VII1288-1310
Emperor,
1308-
1313
John I the Blind1310-1346
Charles I,
IV of Empire
1346-1353
Emperor,
1347-
1378
Wenceslas IDuke,
1353-1383
Wenceslas II,
IV of Bohemia
1383-1388,
1411-1412
Emperor,
1378-
1400,
d.1419
Jobst of Moravia1388-1411
Anthony
of Burgundy
1412-1415
Elizabeth
of Görlitz
1415-1419,
1425-1443,
d.1451
John II
of Burgundy
1419-1425,
d.1427
Passes to Burgundy, 1443
[William III
of Saxony]
Claimant,
1439-1482
Passes to Hapsburgs, 1482
Luxemburg begins as a castle obtained in 963 by Sigfried, Count of the Ardennes, whose brothers supply many of the early Dukes of Upper Lorraine. By 1060 this has grown into its own County. After a couple of female heirs, both named Ermesinde (or Ermesind), the House of Luxemburg, now actually the House of Limburg, became one of the most important political forces in the 14th century, contending with the
Hapsburgs for supremacy in Central Europe. They would be the heirs to the Przemysls in Bohemia (subsequently using the Czech name "Václav," or "Wenceslas" in Latin), succeeded to Hungary, and contributed four Emperors, until their own male line came to an end and the Hapsburgs themselves got the pieces (as the two Houses had actually agreed in the Treaty of Brünn in 1364).

The Emperor Henry VII came in for praise by Dante for, unlike the Hapsburgs, entering Italy and trying to assert Imperial authority. However, this was a hopeless project and a waste of time. More realistic was the regularization of Imperial Elections in the Golden Bull of Emperor Charles IV in 1356. This prepared the way for the subsequent history of the Empire as a loose confederation with a largely titular sovereign.


 
As the Hapsburg Emperor Albert II married the Luxemburg heiress Elizabeth of Bohemia and Hungary, Luxemburg and other former parts of Lower Lorraine became targets of the Dukes of Burgundy. Wenceslas II lost Luxemburg in default of a loan. It ended up passing to his niece Elizabeth of Görlitz. Elizabeth sold the Duchy to Philip the Good of Burgundy, who paid her off in 1444. I am not aware he had any real claim on Luxemburg, except that he wanted it. He had obtained Holland by treating his cousin Jacqueline rather worse in 1433, with, as far as I can tell, a slightly better claim as himself a maternal Wittelsbach. The nature of William of Saxony's claim to the Duchy is detailed at Saxony. In 1477, with the death of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, the Burgundian claims also became Hapsburg claims, as the Heiress Mary of Burgundy married Maximilian of Hapsburg. Luxemburg would then remain in Hapsburg hands until the French Revolution, then following all of the Austrian Netherlands in union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Unlike other such territories, Luxemburg was considered part of the German Confederation of 1815, and a Prussian garrison was stationed there. When Belgium became independent in 1830, it took with it a large piece of Luxemburg, which was left territorially detached from the Netherlands. In 1890, it then became independent, now usually with a French spelling of its name, "Luxembourg," as detailed below.

I have seen Elizabeth of Görlitz listed on the Internet as the daughter of Wenceslas II. Her genealogy, however, as given here, is shown on page 84 of the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume I Part 1, Deutsche Kaiser-, Königs, Herzogs- und Grafenhäuser I [Andreas Thiele, Third Edition, R. G. Fischer Verlag, 1997].

Lorraine Index

Francia Index

Counts of Holland

Counts of Holland
Dirk Id. 923
Dirk II923-988
Arnold988-993
Dirk III993-1039
Dirk IV1039-1049
Floris I1049-1061
Dirk V1061-1091
Floris II, the Fat1091-1121
Dirk VI1121-1157
Floris III1157-1187
Dirk VII1191-1203
Ada1203-1204
William I1204-1224
Floris IV1224-1235
William II1235-1256
rival Emperor,
1247-1256
Floris V1256-1296
John I1296-1299
Union of Holland & Hainault, 1299
John IICount of Hainault,
1280-1304
1299-1304
William III the Good1304-1337
William IV1337-1345
Disputed succession
Margaret1345-1356
Louis (IV)
of Bavaria
Emperor,
1314-1347
1345-1347
William V1347-1389
Albert1389-1404
William VI1404-1417
Jacqueline of Holland1417-1433,
d.1436
William/John IV
of Brabant
Duke of Brabant,
1415-1427
1417-1424
Union of Holland, Brabant,
& Burgundy, 1433

There are few more charming and appealing places in Europe than Holland. After a long line of native Counts, we find rule passing to Hainault, itself recently separated from Flanders. This leads to marriage to the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria, whose inexhaustible heirs, however, are not enough to keep Holland and Hainault in their line. The unfortunate Jacqueline, shunning what should have been a wise marriage to the worthless Duke of Brabant, lives to see both her realm and Brabant scooped up in the growing Burgundian empire, whence, of course, it soon passes to the Hapsburgs, later to emerge on the center stage of Europe in the great Revolt against Spain.


Lorraine Index

Francia Index

Stadholders & Kings of the Netherlands

Stadholders and Kings
of the Netherlands
William I, the Silent,
Prince of Orange,
Count of Nassau
Stadholder
of Holland,
etc.,
1559-1567,
1572-1584
Dutch Revolt, 1568;
Eighty Years War, 1568-1648;
seizure of Brill, 1572;
mutiny of Spanish Army, 1576;
Union of Utrecht, 1579;
Act of Abjuration, Dutch
Independence, 1581
Maurice (Maurits)1585-1625
Spanish Army defeated,
Battle of Nieuwpoort, 1600;
Spanish fleet sunk at
Gibraltar, 1607;
Twelve Years Truce, 1609-1621:
Thirty Years War, 1618-1648
Frederik Hendrik1625-1647
New Amsterdam founded, 1625
William II1647-1650
Peace of Westphalia, Dutch
Independence recognized by
Spain, 1648;
Republic, 1650-1672;
First Anglo-Dutch War,
1652-1654;
Second Anglo-Dutch War,
1664-1667;
New Amsterdam lost to
England, becomes
New York, 1664
William III1672-1702
King of
England,
1689-1702
Dutch War of France,
1672-1678;
Third Anglo-Dutch War,
1672-1674;
War of the League of
Augsburg, 1688-1697;
War of the Spanish
Succession, 1701-1713;
Republic, 1702-1747
William IV Friso1747-1751
William V1751-1795,
d. 1806
Fourth Anglo-Dutch War,
1780-1784
Batavian Republic, 1795-1806
Louis BonaparteKing,
1806-1810
annexed by France, 1810-1813
William I (VI)King of the
Netherlands,
1813-1840
William II1840-1849
William III1849-1890
Wilhelmina1890-1948,
exile,
1940-1945
Occupation by Germany,
1940-1945
Juliana1948-1980,
abdicated
Beatrix1980-2013,
abdicated
Willem-Alexander2013
 
The creation of the Dutch Republic is one of the great stories of world history. The drama and heroism of the revolt against
Spain is too seldom recounted. A union of various states with their own traditions and governments, suspicious of authority, religiously tolerant, and the greatest commercial and banking power of the age, the Netherlands was one of the first truly modern states, even though its system of checks and balances was largely an artifact of mediaeval particularism, rather than a politically enlightened design. Although unable to withstand Napoleon and Hitler as successfully as Philip II or Louis XIV, these were all very fine enemies to have. Nor could a better exemplar and theorist of toleration be found in his age than Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). At the same time, unforgettable images of peaceful, quiet, prosperous life, as in Jan Vermeer (1632-1775, commemorated in the 2003 movie, Girl With a Pearl Earring) and many others, were created in Dutch painting.

The declaration of Dutch independence was nearly simultaneous with the loss of Portuguese independence. The Dutch were then barely free of Spanish power before they were overseas taking Portuguese possessions away from them in India and the East Indies. For some time the Netherlands was then the predominant power in the Indian Ocean. Nagasaki is marked on the map even though this was not an actual Dutch possession; but for three centuries this was the only port, and the Dutch the only traders, through which Japan maintained contact with Europeans. Substantial Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope (1652) created a colonial population, the Boers, who dominated the history of South Africa until quite recently. When the Cape Colony was kept by Britain at the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, the Boers soon decided to leave, heading inland on the Great Trek (1836), and founding the Boer Republics of the Transvaal (1852) and Orange Free State (1854). As at the Cape, Dutch power soon retreated before British and French. Nevertheless, the Dutch retained hold of Indonesia, which became one of the largest and most populous European colonial possessions anywhere. Nor did the Indonesians submit peacefully. Dutch rule was often harsh, and as late as 1908 the famous island of Bali was subjugated amid scenes of slaughter. The bitterness of the Indonesians translated into much collaboration with the occupying Japanese in World War II and resistance to the return of the Allies. Indonesian independence in 1949 was not the kind of often amiable parting that the British enjoyed in India. Unfortunately, the Dutch later (1963) allowed Indonesia to annex the western part of New Guinea, Irian, which otherwise had no historical, cultural, linguistic, or religious connection to it.

In the New World, the Dutch most famously founded New Amsterdam in 1625, later to become New York City -- all Dutch possessions were the "New Netherlands." Dutch names are still to be found, of places and persons, from New York City up the Hudson Valley and in New Jersey. One of these names, Roosevelt (from Claes Martenzen van Rosenvelt/Roosevelt, who settled in New Amsterdam in 1644), became the name of two American Presidents. Another name, Vanderbilt (from Jan Aertszoon van der Bilt, 1620-1705, who arrived as an indentured servant in 1650), became the name of one of the wealthiest families in American history.

In 1667 the British compensated the Dutch for the loss of all of the New Netherlands by the cession of Dutch Guiana, or Surinam, which became independent only in 1975. Otherwise, the Netherlands Antilles or the Netherlands West Indies -- Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Martin -- remain Dutch until today.

As the Netherlands became the first modern state in terms of commerce and tolerance, Amsterdam became the center of European banking and finance. In this, it succeeded the cities of northern Italy. Amsterdam has had only two successors since the 17th century, London and New York. (In the 1980's it briefly looked like Tokyo might succeed New York, but then the Japanese bubble burst.) The original Italian center of banking is remembered in the name of Lombard Street in the banking district of London. New York certainly took over financial supremacy as the result of World War I. When London itself took over is a little less clear, but the task was certainly accomplished by the time of the War of the Spanish Succession. The Bank of England itself, founded in 1694, was a large part of that process. The supremacy of Amsterdam in its day contains a valuable lesson. Spain enjoyed a flood of silver from Mexico and Peru (which are still the world's largest producers of silver). Then, as for many people now, this would have been expected to give Spain irresistible economic power. The Spanish economy, however, could not absorb the money, and even while inflation raged, the Spanish government still hovered on the edge of bankruptcy. When Spain suspended payments on its debt in 1576, and the army in the Netherlands didn't get paid, a mutiny handed the Dutch some sorely needed breathing room. Meanwhile, the Dutch, who had no such sources of precious metals, nevertheless had the economy to absorb the money. The Spanish silver, despite a state of war, ended up in Dutch hands. This refutes the crude but common Cargo Cult view of economics, that "natural resources" themselves constitute wealth. The lesson is not only applicable now, but even to the ancient world:  e.g. some historians seem to think that Athens was prosperous and powerful, not because of a brilliant commercial culture, but just because of the Laurion silver mines. All of these are of a piece with ancient prejudices against trade and money and modern follies along the same lines. The modern Netherlands has fallen for many of the same devices of welfare socialism as the rest of Europe, but it nevertheless ranks as one of the freest economies on Earth, tied for fourth place [according to The Economist] with the United States, Luxembourg, Ireland, and Estonia (the top three are Hong Kong, Singapore, and New Zealand). Consequently, the Netherlands avoids the stagnant growth and high unemployment of nearby France, Germany, and Belgium.

Much of the genealogy below is from The Dutch Republic, Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477-1806, by Jonathan I. Israel [The Oxford History of Early Modern Europe, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995, 1998, p.470]. Some details have been added from the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume I, Part 2, Deutsche Kaiser-, Königs-, Herzogs- und Grafenhäuser II [Andreas Thiele, Third Edition, R. G. Fischer Verlag, 1997] and Volume II, Part 1, Europäiche Kaiser-, Königs- und Fürstenhäuser I Westeuropa [Andreas Thiele, R. G. Fischer Verlag, Part 1, Third Edition, 2001]. The Volume I was needed for the connection to the Houses of Mecklenburg and Lippe. The Dutch Royal House continues to be regarded as the House of Orange despite the failure of the male line in no less than three successive generations.

Ceylon, Dutch Governors (1640-1796)

Commanders & Governors of the Dutch Cape Colony (1652-1806)

The Boer Republics (1854-1902)

The House of Orange and Nassau

Lorraine Index

Francia Index

Kings of Belgium

Kings of Belgium
Revolt against the
Netherlands, 1830
Leopold I of
Saxe-Coburg
1831-1865
Leopold II1865-1909
Albert I1909-1934
Occupation by Germany,
1914-1918
Leopold III1934-1951;
exile,
1945-1950;
d. 1983
Occupation by Germany,
1940-1944
CharlesRegent,
1944-1951
Baudouin1951-1993
Albert II1993-2013,
abdicated
Philippe2013
The modern identity of Belgium was forged in the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain. Spain was able to retain the South of the country, which thus remained Catholic. For over a century, Belgium was the "Spanish Netherlands." Transferred to Austria in 1713, as part of the settlement of the War of the Spanish Succession, it was the "Austrian Netherlands" until overrun by Revolutionary France in 1794. Since Austria had never been thrilled with defending such a vulnerable outlier, Belgium was transferred to the Netherlands by the Congress of Vienna. Reunited for the first time in 300 years, the differences between the North and the South had become too great for there to be a happy marriage. In the revolutionary year of 1830, the South broke away. This was of some concern to the Great Powers, because of the strategic position of the country, so a treaty was drawn up by which all guaranteed the neutrality of the place that was now for the first time called "Belgium," after the Celtic tribe (Belgae) and the Roman Province (Belgica) that had been in the area. A German prince, Leopold of
Saxe-Coburg, an uncle of Queen Victoria of England, married to a daughter of the new Bourgeois King of France, was brought in to create a monarchy, and, indeed, Belgium grew in its neutrality for the rest of the century.

The most interesting thing, indeed, about Belgian history in the era was the personal slave state that Leopold II created in the Congo (1884). This grew into such a scandal that anti-slavery societies finally forced Leopold to cede the colony to the Belgian government (1908). Even so, Belgian rule did little to prepare the Congo for independence, which came in 1960. Since then, the country has gone through sad cycles of civil war, dictators, massacres, and economic decline. Leopold is also supposed to have had a bad moment when Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany casually asked him at a banquet once if he would mind if the German Army passed through Belgium on its way to France. It was soon common knowledge that German war plans involved the violation of Belgian neutrality. The Germans, as it happened, were as good as the rumors. The Belgian Army, led by King Albert, was driven right out of the country, and German atrocities against the Belgians became the stuff of years of Allied War propaganda. The Belgian forts were expected to at least slow the Germans, after the Russians in Port Arthur had held out for months against the Japanese in 1905. Unfortunately, observers failed to realize that the siege guns of the Japanese had been sunk at sea. When new guns finally arrived at Port Arthur, the Japanese quickly pulverized Russian defenses. The Germans, with even larger guns, made short work of the Belgian forts. Twenty years later, the Germans did it again. This time King Leopold III decided to stay in the Occupied country, but he was then perceived as being so pro-German that he had to go into exile when the War was over.

One consequence of World War I had been a share of German Tanganyika:  Rwanda and Burundi or, formerly, Ruanda-Urundi. The history of these countries since their independence (1962) has been a horrifying lesson in ethnic conflict, as the pastoral, tall, and aristocratic Tutsis (or Watutsi) have more than once been slaughtered by the agrarian (and shorter) Hutus.

Curiously, it is now common to claim that the Tutsis and Hutus are not ethnically different and that the distinction was introduced by the Belgians. If Tutsis were any taller, it was because the Belgians picked out taller people to be "Tutsis." On the other hand, this claim is not consistently maintained, since one otherwise hears that Tutsis and Hutus are indistinguishable. Now, not far north of Rwanda, in the southern Sudan, there actually are very tall pastoral people, so it never seemed strange to me that groups of such people might appear in the highlands or impose themselves on the locals. Or perhaps the claims about the Belgians are true. Nevertheless, it was common in European empires to obtain the cooperation of local minorities in imperial administration, but I have never heard of some ethnic division being created out of whole cloth. My suspicion is that the thesis about the Tutsis and Hutus, whether true or not, sounds too much of a piece with the urge to blame all post-colonial ethnic conflicts on the effects of colonialism. I think that the real story is more like that ethnic conflicts were stopped by the Europeans and simply started up again afterwards -- or that a minority, already disliked, became the target of revenge for imperial cooperation.

Recently, the epic massacre of Tutsis in Rwanda (1994), recounted by the fine movie Hotel Rwanda [2004], ended with the Tutsis, despite their minority (and depleted) status, actually taking over the country, with many Hutus fleeing into exile (into miserable and anarchic camps in the Congo). If anything, this would seem to bespeak the kind of discipline and military prowess that an aristocratic minority might be expected to possess, regardless of what the Belgians thought or did about them.

Now, for Belgium itself, after 55 years of peace and prosperity again, although burdened with the high unemployment of Euro-socialism (over 12%), the worst problem that the country seems to have is linguistic. The Romance/Germanic language boundary runs right through the place, with Germanic speakers on the north side and the Walloons (French speakers) on the south side. This involves many minor irritations and occasional conflicts that threaten to become more serious. Originally, Belgian authorities wanted only French as the written and cultural language of the country. Only in 1928 was French replaced as the language of education in Flanders itself. What replaced it has occasioned some confusion. In the past, the Germanic languages of Belgium have in general been called "Flemish." This serves to distinguish the language of Belgium from that of the Netherlands, but it obscures the truth that the official language of Belgium is actually no less than standard Dutch. There are spoken dialects of Dutch in Belgium, which are West Flemish, East Flemish, Brabantic, and Limburgian. So while "Flemish" may have a political meaning as all the forms of Dutch spoken in Belgium, the linguistic meaning applies only to certain spoken dialects of Dutch, which are found not only in Belgium, but also in places in France and the Netherlands.

Lorraine Index

Francia Index

Grand Dukes of Luxembourg

Grand Dukes of Luxembourg
William I of the Netherlands1815-1840
half of Duchy ceded to Belgium, 1830
William II of the Netherlands1840-1849
William III of the Netherlands1849-1890
Adolph of Nassau1890-1905
William Alexis1905-1912
Marie Adélaïde1912-1919,
d. 1924
Occupation by Germany, 1914-1918
Charlotte1919-1964,
exile, 1940-1945
Occupation by Germany, 1940-1945
Jean of Bourbon-Parma1964-2000,
abdicated
Henri2000-
 
Luxembourg is the last Grand Duchy in Europe -- though the
type really only dates from the time of Napoleon. When the Salic Law prohibited the succession of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands to Luxembourg in 1890, a distant relative in the House of Nassau was found for the Grand Duchy. This turned out to be Adolph, who had been the Duke and Prince of Nassau, Usingen, and Nassau-Weilburg and had lost his state to Prussia in 1866, after taking the side of Austria in the Six Weeks War. Since Adolph was really of the senior line of Nassau, this was actually rather nice, for the Netherlands, in effect, to find a position for him after the loss of his job to Prussia.

By 1912 the Salic Law somehow was set aside and the succession has been twice to Grand Duchesses. Charlotte succeeded her sister Marie Adélaïde, who abdicated after gaining a pro-German reputation in World War I, and married the heir, Felix, of the Bourbons of Parma. The subsequent genealogy can be examined there and below.

Despite its small size, Luxembourg is one of the richest countries in the world (along with Monaco, Hong Kong, and oil Sheikdoms). In terms of per capita income, Luxembourg is actually the richest country in the world -- with 133% of the per capita income of the United States, as adjusted for "purchasing power parity," according to The Economist [2003]. The "Benelux" area (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) is the most heavily industrialized part of Europe and the heart of the new European Union, whose headquarters is in Brussels.

Although Luxembourg was traditionally part of Germany, even still in the German Confederation of 1815, the names of recent Grand Dukes and Duchesses usually seem to be given in French, and the name of the country is now really always seen in its French form (rather than German Luxemburg). However, the official language of Luxembourg is Letzeburgish or Luxembourgeois, alternative names that make it difficult to know whether it is a dialect of German or of French. It is actually a dialect of German, as we see in a local saying, Mir wölle bleiwe wat mir sin ("We want to remain what we are"). In standard (High) German that would be Wir wollen bleiben was wir sind -- wat rather than was reveals the affinity with Dutch wat and English "what." We also see this in the Letzeburgish name of the country, the Grousherzogdem Lezebuurg, which we can contrast with German Großherzogtum Luxemburg and French Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. These characteristics make it look like Letzeburgish is a dialect of Low German. However, it is actually High German. Its differences with standard modern High German is due to its belonging to the "Central" or "Middle" dialectic area of High German, where we have a transition between the sounds of High German and the sounds of Low German.
 

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Francia Media, Burgundy

Counts of Burgundy
The Free County, Franche Comté,
(capital Besançon) 914-1678 AD


Free County of Burgundy
Hugo/Hugh
the Black
Count of
Besançon
914-952
Duke of
Burgundy,
936-952
Lenthold IMâcon,
945-965
Besançon,
952-965
Alberic IIMâcon &
Besançon,
965-982
Otto WilliamBesançon,
982-c.995
Count of
Burgundy,
c.995-1026
Mâcon,
995-1006
Duke of
Burgundy,
1002-1004/5
Renald/Renault ICount of
Burgundy,
1027-1056
Kingdom of Burgundy
passes to Empire, 1032
William I
the Great
1057-1087
Renald II1087-1105
William II1105-1125
William III1125-1127
Renald III1127-1148
William IV1148-1157
Beatrice I1157-1184
Frederick
Barbarossa
1184-1189
Emperor
1152-
1190
Otto I1189-1200
Beatrice II1200-1231
Otto II1231-1234
Otto III1234-1248
Adelaide1248-1279
Otto IV1279-1302
Robert1302-1315
Jeanne I1315-1329
The Free County of Burgundy, the Franche Comté (franche is the feminine of franc, "free," "honest," "true," etc.), originally the County of Besançon, was a fief of the Kingdom of
Burgundy and never, like the Duchy of Burgundy, part of France (West Francia) -- until the French Kings focused their ambitions on it in the 17th century. The identity of the County as that of Burgundy rather than of Besançon seems to have shifted under the great Count Otto William. It came to be called the "Free County" because Count Renald III refused to do homage for the territory to the Emperor Lothar II in 1127. After a ten year struggle the County achieved practical autonomy, although not long afterward it became a possession, through marriage, of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa himself. For many years the County was associated with the County of Mâcon, on the map below lying on the Saône River about halfway between Lyon and Autun.

Assembling the story of the Free County has not been easy. The chronology was originally derived mainly from Bruce R. Gordon's Regnal Chronologies, and the genealogy initially from Brian Tompsett's Royal and Noble genealogy. Tompsett did not include all the Counts, or Countesses, listed by Gordon. This was very frustrating, especially when ordinary histories pay no attention whatsoever to the County. What Tompsett did have, however, was the descent of Count Otto William from Berengar II of Ivrea, the last King of Italy before the Germans (Otto I) arrived. And he did enable me to construct, through the Counts of Auxonne, the line of descent all the way from Berengar's father to Charles II of Spain, the last Count of Burgundy before it became a permanent part of France. (But Tompsett did have a major confusion, listing Otto William as his own great-grandson! Tompsett also lists John I and Hugh of Auxonne as Counts of Burgundy, which Gordon does not -- Hugh would have been, by marriage, but not John.)

The gap in Tompsett's genealogy, from Beatrice I to Otto IV, was then helpfully supplied by a correspondent, Anthony Pick, on the basis of a 1957 Encyclopaedia Britannica entry on the history of Burgundy by J.B. Richard of the University of Dijon. I have been now able to confirm this in the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume I Part 1, Deutsche Kaiser-, Königs, Herzogs- und Grafenhäuser I [Andreas Thiele, Third Edition, R. G. Fischer Verlag, 1997], where Otto I of Burgundy is shown (p.22) as a son of Frederick Barbarossa -- something I have really not seen elsewhere. Otto's daughter Beatrice is shown there married to Otto (II) of Meran, who is also given later (p.156) with their children Otto (III) and Adelaide (Adelheid) and Adelaide's marriage to Hugh of Auxonne. In the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume II Part 1, Europäische Kaiser-, Königs- und Fürstenhäuser I Westeuropa [Andreas Thiele, Third Edition, R. G. Fischer Verlag, 2001], Thiele also supplies information on the line of Renald II, which Tompsett left unaccounted for.

I had nothing on the genealogy of the Counts before Otto William. However, a correspondent in Finland, Jouni Pöyliö, then pointed out that with the early Counts listed, the names and dates appeared to correspond to the first four Dukes of Burgundy. I didn't notice any mention of the County in Thiele's entries for the Dukes, and this still left other Counts unaccounted for. Mr. Pöyliö has now happily brought to my attention a French site, the Portail Histoire de la Bourgogne et de la Franche-Comté, that gives a complete list, with genealogical information, of the Counts of Burgundy, the Counts of Mâcon, and of other domains in the area (including the Dukes of Burgundy). This is a great reference for all this material, and much of the treatment here is now revised on the basis of its information.

Of great interest in this genealogy are the marriages with the Emperor Frederick I and with Urraca, the Queen of León and Castile. These mean that the subsequent Hohenstaufen are descendants of Burgundy, while the House of León and Castile actually becomes that of Burgundy, or of Ivrea, if one does back far enough.

In the descent shown, the turning point is the marriage of Jeanne I to King Philip V of France. This is at the end of the House of Capet, but Jeanne and Philip actually have a number of daughters, through whom the County of Burgundy passes; and since they marry Dukes of Burgundy and Counts of Flanders, the fateful combination of the Duchy of Burgundy with the Counties of Flanders and Burgundy arises. In the following genealogy, we see the whole lot pass to the Dukes of Burgundy and then to the Hapsburg Kings of Spain. France tried to snatch the Free County at the death of Charles the Bold (1477), but it was not a fief of France. In 1482 the occupation was given legality as part of the dowry of Margaret of Austria in her engagement to the future Charles VIII of France. When Charles broke the engagement, however, in 1493, the territory was returned to the Hapsburgs -- something Charles VIII perhaps could have avoided doing and for which he is sometimes condemned (prudentially, if not morally). Note how the line of John I de Châlon, Lord of Arlay, becomes Princes of Orange, 1393-1530, before the succession of the much more famous Counts of Nassau.

Jeanne II1329-1347
Philip I1347-1361
Duke of
Burgundy,
1349-1361
Margaret I1361-1382
Louis, II
of Flanders
1382-1384
Count of
Flanders,
1346-1361
Margaret II1384-1405
Countess of
Flanders,
1384-1405
Philip II the Bold1384-1404
Duke of
Burgundy,
1364-1504
John the Fearless1404-1419
Duke of
Burgundy,
1404-1419
Philip III
the Good
1419-1467
Duke of
Burgundy,
1419-1467
Charles I
the Bold
1467-1477
Duke of
Burgundy,
1467-1477
Mary1477-1482
occupied by France,
1477-1493
Philip II
the Handsome
I of Spain
1482-1506
King of
Spain,
1504-1506
Charles II,
I of Spain,
V of Empire
1506-1556,
d.1558
King of
Spain,
1516-1556
Emperor,
1519-
1556
Philip V,
II of Spain
1556-1598
King of
Spain,
1556-1598
Philip VI,
III of Spain
1598-1621
King of
Spain,
1598-1521
Philip VII,
IV of Spain
1621-1665
King of
Spain,
1621-1665
Charles III,
II of Spain
1665-1678,
d.1700
King of
Spain,
1665-1700
to France, 1678

It is noteworthy that Margaret of Mâle stood to become Countess of Burgundy through the prospective marriage with her cousin, Philip of Rouvre, the last Capetian Duke of Burgundy. Philip, however, died of the plague, and the County actually passed to Margaret's grandmother. The deaths of her grandmother and father then brought her the County anyway, which then passed to the Dukes of Burgundy after all, since Margaret married the new Valois Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Bold.

The Free County of Burgundy was an important stepping stone for Spain from the Mediterranean to the Spanish Netherlands, as for the infamous March of the Duke of Alba to put down unrest in the Netherlands in 1567. Eventually, however, Spanish power was broken, and the Wars of Louis XIV targeted all the lands to the east of France. His Dutch War (1672-1678), which failed in the conquest of the Netherlands, nevertheless netted the Free County. The union with France of a French speaking region seemed so complete and natural that, unlike Alsace or Lorraine, it has really never been challenged. Most residents and travellers are probably unaware that it was never a historic or legal part of France until 1678.
 

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Princes of Orange, 1171-1584 AD

Orange was a small principality, and still today a city, on the Rhône River in the South of France. The Roman city was called Arausio. In the Middle Ages, this name curiously became assimilated to the name of an imported fruit. In Arabic that was the nâranj, which was ultimately from Sanskirt nâran.ga. The word, as it happens, was borrowed into the local language of the South of Burgundy, Provençal, as auranja. Today it is "orange" in both French and English. How the city of Arausio got precisely this pronunciation also is a good question -- there is no /nj/ in the Latin word. Spanish preserves the Arabic word without much change, as naranja, though, of course, the pronunciation of the j has changed.

The first Princes of Orange, when this was a fief of the Kingdom of Burgundy, were of the House of Baux. I have been able to find very little information about the succession or genealogy of Baux, or about the origin of the Principality. What is shown first here (and below for Orange-Nassau) is derived from the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume II, Part 1, Europäiche Kaiser-, Königs- und Fürstenhäuser I Westeuropa [Andreas Thiele, R. G. Fischer Verlag, Part 1, Third Edition, 2001]. The only member of the house of Baux shown is Raimund I, who married the sister Stephanie of Dulcia I, Countess of Provence.

For what comes next, I have had to rely on a correspondent in the Netherlands, who has provided information for the table at left from the Europäiche Stammtafeln, Stammtafeln der Europäichen Staaten, Neue Folge, Volume III, Part 4, Das feudale Frankreich und sein Einfluß auf die Welt des Mittelalters (Detlev Schwennicke, Verlag J.A. Stargardt, Marburg 1989, pp.745, 748, 751, & 752). Supplementing and confirming this is a website, "Genealogie delle Dinastie Italiane," which has a nice page for the house of Baux (del Balzo). However, while Thiele gives Maria of Montpellier as the mother of Barrale of Marseille, this and other sources have her as the daughter of Barral's first wife.

Here we have Bertrand of Baux, son of Raimund and Stephanie, who marries the heiress Tiburge of Orange, whose father seems to have been merely Count of Orange. Orange is then said (according to a Dutch historical encyclopaedia) to have been elevated to a Principality, perhaps more common in Germany than elsewhere, in 1163 by the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. This seems to have been before the death of William of Omelaz. After Bertrand and Tiberge, things are clear enough, with several cases of simultaneous succession and division between brothers. By 1340, however, primogeniture seems to have taken hold, and the descendants of Bertrand III and Raimund III are no longer counted as Princes of Orange -- their descendants continue as the del Balzo family in Italy. Raimund V's daughter and heiress, Marie, is then the end of the Baux succession to Orange. A collateral line of Baux, descended from Bertrand II, led to a single Prince of Achaea.

Marie marries into the House of the Free County of Burgundy, on a side also derived from the Dauphins, as shown. Subsequent Burgundian Princes lead to the marriage of the heiress Claudia into the House of Nassau. It is as the inheritance of Nassau that Orange comes to European attention. The Principality remained small, surrounded on three sides by the Papal enclave of Avignon. But the House of Orange-Nassau contributed leadership and then royalty to the Netherlands.

Because of the coincidence of the name of the city and the name of the fruit, Orange bestowed the color orange on the histories of the Netherlands, Ireland, and many other places where the Dutch or those conscious of the Protestant cause set foot. Although the Principality was conquered and annexed to France in 1713 after the War of the Spanish Succession, the name lived on. Subsequent members of the two Dutch lines of Orange are covered under the genealogy for the Netherlands.

Speaking of orange, one is liable to discover that the word for the fruit in Arabic today is not nâranj, but burtuqâl. This is similar to the Persian word for orange, portoqal, which is obviously from the word "Portugal." Since medial Persian q is pronounced like Arabic gh, one might not be surprised to discover that "Portugal" in Arabic is Burtughâl. The Arabic word for "orange" thus is closer to the Persian spelling, even though this changes the pronunciation somewhat. (There is no p in Arabic.) We see a similar word in Turkish, as portakal, and even in Modern Greek, as portokalli (explained in the 2002 movie, My Big Fat Greek Wedding, where the name of the Greek family is "Portokalos"). So what is the story? Well, apparently, the nâranj is the original bitter orange from India (Citrus aurantium). Today, bitter orange is used as rootstock for citrus grafts and to make things like Curaçao liqueurs and perfume. The portoqal is the sweet orange that was brought by, wouldn't you know, the Portuguese from China (Citrus sinensis) after they created Indian Ocean trade in the 16th century. The Arabic words thus preserve a historical and varietal difference that is not remembered in other languages. We might wonder why the Chinese had not exported their own oranges, but China had abruptly ended its foreign trade in 1433. Meanwhile, in Dutch, where oranje means the House and the color, the fruit is a sinaasappel (appelsien in Flemish), i.e. the "Chinese apple." The Dutch, as involved in the China trade as the Portuguese, must have known where the sweet oranges came from.
 
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Counts of Viennois and Dauphiné, c.962-1349 AD

Counts of Vienne, Viennois
Constantined.962
Poltou or Richarduncertain dates
and identities
Amadeus or Hubert
Wigo/Guigues I1029/30-1063
Guigues II1063-1075
Guigues III1075-1080/1125
Guigues IVDauphin,
1133-1142
Guigues V1142/1155-1162
Beatrice1162-1228
Albrerich Taillefer
de Toulouse
d.1180
Hugh I,
III of Burgundy
1183-1192
Duke of Burgundy,
1162-1192
Hugh II de
Coligny-le-Neuf
1202-1228
Andrew
Guigues VI
1228-1237
Guigues VII1237-1269
John I1269-1281
Anne1281-1296
Humbert I de la
Tour du Pin
1281-1307
John II1307-1319
Guigues VIII1319-1333
Humbert II1333-1349,
d.1355
sold to the future Charles V
of France, 1349
When the Dauphiné was purchased by the future
Charles V of France in 1349, it was not only a fateful addition to the territory of France -- future heirs to the Throne would bear the title of "Dauphin" -- but a fateful salient of France into the Kingdom of Burgundy. Eventually, acquisition of the territories of Provence (1481), the Franche Comté (1678), Avignon (1791), and Savoy (1860) would deliver the bulk of the old Kingdom into French control. The only substantial part to remain separate is what became Switzerland.

The sources that were originally helpful in piecing this information together were Brian Tompsett's Royal and Noble Genealogy and WW-Person, A WWW Data base of European nobility. European history after European history hardly gives the time of day to this area. Although all of it is later part of France, even good historical atlas maps of France give no details here, since it was outside of France until the 14th century. Only WW-Person gives chronological lists of Counts of Viennois and Lyonnais, but they are incomplete. His genealogical information, and that of Tompsett, adds some detail, but the information is often obscure, with major gaps, and is sometimes contradictory. One obscurity is the relationship of the County of Viennois to the Dauphiné. The first Count of Vienne (the Viennois) I have found was Charles Constantine, the son of Louis the Blind of Burgundy. I have never seen any list of subsequent Counts, and even who Constantine's (2) sons were seems a matter of uncertainty. Thus, the story picks up with Wigo/Guigues I, Count of Albon, who is supposed to have been enfeoffed with the southern part of the County. At some point the descendants of Guigues take over the Countship of Vienne itself. WW-Person's list of the Counts of Viennois simply begins with Guigues V, the second Count to bear the title "Dauphin" -- whence Viennois essentially becomes the Dauphiné. The importance of the city of Vienne declines, and the central city of the Dauphiné eventually becomes Grenoble. As the Count now is the Dauphin, the Countess is the Dauphine. The addition of the accent, Dauphiné, gives us the domain.

Another factor in the story is the other major city of the Dauphiné, Lyon (which turns up as "Lyons" occasionally). WW-Person's list of the Counts of Lyonnais ends with Artaud III, but then his genealogical pages continue the line. What is not clear is what happens with the descendants of Ida Raimunde, sister of William III of Lyon, who married the brother of Guigues III of Albon, Guido I Raimond. One would expect that Ida and Guido's descendants become Counts of Lyon. The genealogical pages continue their descendants until 1275, who are all now cousins of the House of Albon, continuing beyond the point where the Dauphiné itself passes to the Capetian House of Burgundy. I have no information whatsoever on this line, almost all of whom are listed with the name "Guido" (the Italian version of French "Guy/Gui" or old Germanic "Wido"), with some inconsistent numbering. Even why the Italian version is used is unremarked.

Hugh III of Burgundy, by his first marriage provides the Heir to Burgundy, but then he divorced his first wife and married the Dauphine Beatrice, who then produced an Heir for the Dauphiné. The dates and relationships here all seem rather better known than the earlier ones. After three generations we get another Heiress, Anne, who marries local nobility. The modern La Tour du Pin is about halfway between Grenoble and Lyon. Tompsett and WW-Person left the relationships of John II, Guigues VIII, and Humbert II unexplained. Now, however, I have found these in the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume II Part 1, Europäische Kaiser-, Königs, und Fürstenhäuser I Westeuropa, by Andreas Thiele [R.G. Fischer Verlag, 2001, p.150]. The information for the earlier line in the Stammtafeln is consistent with that shown, except for several dates, which will be indicated in a future revision, and the use of "Guido" instead of "Wigo" or "Guigues."

Humbert II, of course, is the one who in 1349 sells (an extraordinary transaction to be sure) the realm to Charles, the grandson of Philip VI of France. Charles then became the first French Dauphin, and as he was the Crown Prince from 1350-1364, this now became the traditional title of the Heir Apparent of France. For some time, however, the Dauphiné was still legally part of the Kingdom of Burgundy rather than France and was held as a personal possession by the Dauphin. The Emperor Charles IV was still formally crowned as King of Burgundy at Arles in 1365. When the future Louis XI acted somewhat too independently, however, Charles VII (1422-1461) formally annexed the Dauphiné to the Royal domain of France (1457).
 

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Counts and Dukes of Savoy, 1000-1730 AD

Counts of Savoy
Humbert I
White Hands
1000-1048
Amadeus I1048-1051
Odo1051-1059
Peter I1059-1078
Amadeus II1078-1080
Humbert II1080-1103
Amadeus III1103-1149
Humbert III
the Saint
1149-1189
Thomas1189-1233
Amadeus IV1233-1253
Boniface1258-1263
Peter II, "little
Charlemagne"
1263-1268
Philip I1268-1285
Amadeus V1285-1323
Edward1323-1329
Aimon1329-1343
Amadeus VI
the Green
1343-1383
Amadeus VII
the Red
1383-1391
Dukes of Savoy
Amadeus VIII
(Anti-Pope
Felix V)
Count of Savoy,
1391-1416
Duke of Savoy,
1416-1434
Anti-Pope,
1439-1449
Louis1434-1465
Amadeus IX1465-1472
Philibert I1472-1482
Charles I1482-1490
Charles II1490-1496
Philip1496-1497
Philibert II1497-1504
Charles III1504-1553
Geneva breaks from Savoy,
allies with Switzerland, 1526;
occupied by France,
1536-1559
Emanuel
Philibert
1553-1580
leads Spanish Army,
defeats France,
St. Quentin, 1557
Charles
Emanuel I
1580-1630
Victor
Amadeus I
1630-1637
Charles
Emanuel II
1637-1675
Victor
Amadeus II
Duke of Savoy,
1675-1730
King of Sicily,
1713-1720
King of Sardinia,
1720-1730
In the breakup of the Kingdom of
Burgundy the successful local players were Switzerland (green boundaries on the map below) and Savoy (light blue), but the dominant winner in the long term was France (dark blue and red). The boundary of the Empire in the 13th century is in purple.

The map shows Savoy at about the time of Charles Emanuel I (1580-1630). The Duchy has already acquired the Piedmont in Italy, where Turin will become the principal city and capital of the state, but by 1580 France had already acquired nearly all of Burgundy south of Savoy. All that was wanting was the Papal enclave at Avignon, which would have to wait until the French Revolution, and the Principality of Orange, obtained from the House of Orange in 1713. The first French acquisition in the area may be the one labeled "1229," which was the year of the treaty of Paris, ending the Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229). Count Raymond VII of Toulouse (d. 1249), who was accused of having tolerated (or something) heresy, ceded large parts of his domain to the French Crown, including this piece. (His heiress daughter Joanna married a brother, Alphonse, of St. Louis IX; and when he died in 1271, the rest of Toulouse passed to the Crown.)


The greatest and most fateful French acquisition, however, was of the Dauphiné. In 1349 Count Humbert II (d.1355), the "Dauphin," simply sold the territory to the grandson of King Philip VI of France, the prince who would later become King Charles V. Thus, Charles became the first "Dauphin" of France, and as he was the Crown Prince from 1350-1364, this now became the traditional title of the Heir Apparent of France. For some time, however, the Dauphiné was still legally part of the Kingdom of Burgundy rather than France and was held as a personal possession by the Dauphin. Although the Kingdom was otherwise non-functioning, the Emperor Charles IV was still formally crowned as King of Burgundy at Arles in 1365. When the future Louis XI acted somewhat too independently, however, Charles VII (1422-1461) formally annexed the Dauphiné to the Royal domain of France (1457).

The Dauphiné was the heart of Lower Burgundy, and soon enough most of the rest followed, as Louis XI acquired Provence (1481) after the death of René the Good of Anjou (1480) in default of male heirs. Soon part of Savoy itself would fall, as Henry IV (1589-1610) took everything west of the Rhône in 1601. For a long time afterwards, French attention was elsewhere, expanding towards the Rhine, though a large part of Burgundy, the Free County (Franche Comté) fell to Louis XIV, as one fruit of his Dutch War, in 1678.

The genealogical charts at the beginning of this section and to the right show the House of Savoy down to 1650. The beginning is clouded in some mystery. The first Count of Savoy, Humbert White Hands, is sometimes said to be the grandson of Charles Constantine, Count of Vienne, who is said to be the son of the Emperor and King of Lower Burgundy Louis III, who is sometimes said to have married the daughter Anna of the Emperor Leo VI of Romania. On the other hand, Louis III is also said to have had no children, whether his wife was supposed to be Anna or Ediga of England. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, c.900-c.1024 [Timothy Reuter, editor, Cambridge, 1999] now says that Louis did marry Anna, and that Charles Constantine was their son, while Louis had another son, Rudolf, by a second wife, Adelaide [p.335]. However, Charles Constantine's sons are said to be "Richard and Hubert" and their connection to the Counts of Savoy, or Arles, or Vienne, to be unknown.

Until the end of the Kingdom of Italy in 1946, the House of Savoy was the oldest ruling dynasty in Europe, but if the connections shown are true, it would also be descended both from the Carolingians and from the Macedonian dynasty of Romania.

After Louis XIV's wars, fairly stable years were to pass in the Savoyard relationship with France. Savoy expanded in Italy and acquired the Kingdom of Sicily after the War of the Spanish Succession (1713). This was traded for Sardinia in 1720, and henceforth the whole domain was the Kingdom of Sardinia. The ultimate goal was all of Italy, and in 1859 France was brought in to help defeat Austria and drive the Hapsburgs out of Milan. Napoleon III was successful but had his price:  Savoy itself, and Nice, which were ceded to France in 1860. This may have been worth it, as the Kings of Sardinia then became the Kings of Italy in 1861, but it did leave only two small areas, around Aosta and Susa, that remained to Savoy/Sardinia/Italy from the original Kingdom of Burgundy. Today only Switzerland remains as a significant non-French piece of the original Kingdom.

The genealogy of the Dukes of Savoy is continued in the section on the Kings of Sardinia.

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Grimaldi Princes of Monaco, 1297-present

At 370 acres, or 0.59 square miles, Monaco is one of the smallest countries in the world. By comparison, Liechtenstein covers 61 square miles, Vatican City 108.7 acres, and Luxembourg, a giant, 998 square miles. Monaco possesses a special charm, apart from the sunny, Riviera location, for a couple of reasons. The casino at Monte Carlo is just about the most
Grimaldis
Francesco1297-?
Ranier I?-1301,
d.1314
Charles/Carlo I1317-1324
Charles II1341-1436,
d.1357
John/Giovanni I1395,
1422-1454
Ambrose1419-1422
Catalan1454-1457
Claudine1457-1458
Lambert de
Antibes
Lord,
1457-1494
John II1494-1505
Lucien1505-1523
Augustine1523-1532
Honoré I1532-1581
Charles II1581-1589
Hercules1589-1604
Honoré II1604-1659,
Prince,
1659-1662
Louis I1662-1701
Anthony1701-1731
Louise
Hippolyte
1731-1733
James
d'Estouteville
1731-1733,
d.1751
Honoré III1733-1793,
d.1795
French Occupation,
1793-1814
Honoré IV1814-1819
Honoré V1819-1841
Florestan1841-1856
Charles III1856-1889
Albert I1889-1922
Louis II1922-1949
Rainier III1949-2005
Albert II2005-
famous gambling establishment in the world, where the fictional ghost of James Bond can be imagined, and the present heirs of Monaco are the children of the Hollywood movie star, Grace Kelly, who married Prince Rainier III in 1956 but died tragically in an automobile accident in 1982.

Monaco is an excellent example of cultural and political overlap between Burgundy, Italy, and France. Acquired from Provence by Genoa in 1215, the site already seems to have been associated with the Grimaldi family -- or at least we know of a Grimaldus I of Monaco from 920 and of the death of his son, Guido I, in 980. The Grimaldis went on to prominence in Genoa but ran into trouble, as Guelfs, when the Ghibellines took over the city. Expelled from Genoa, Francesco Grimaldi seized Monaco in 1297. This time, the Grimaldis only held it until 1301, as they threw their fleet into various struggles in the area. By 1395 the brothers Giovanni and Luigi were back, and they secured, as it turned out, permanent possession by 1419.

Tossed out by the French in 1793, the Grimaldis returned after the fall of Napoleon in 1814, but now surrounding them was no longer the Republic of Genoa, but the Kingdom of Sardinia, of which they became a protectorate. This relationship lapsed when Sardinia ceded the area of Nice to France in 1860, in payment for French help in taking Milan away from Austria.

Names like "Grimaldi," "Monaco," and "Monte Carlo" all look Italian, but the area now seems to be French speaking, which is precisely why France claimed it, and the names of the Princes are often rendered in French. If the Princely family should die out, a treaty with France stipulates that sovereignty will fall to the Republic. The family, however, has twice continued through female heirs, and with three adult children, the prospects for continued independence should be reasonably good. However, Grace Kelly's children have not been very keen on suitable marriages. Princess Caroline is on her third marriage, but for the first time to royalty. She has three children from a previous marriage to Stefano Casiraghi (d.1990). Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover is in fact a descendant of King George III of England, through George's grandson, King George V of Hanover, who was deposed from Hanover by Prussia in 1866. This makes little Princess Alexandra, only a year old, a distant member of the British Royal Family.

In 2005, Prince Rainier has now died, and Albert has succeeded. He has still not married and has no children. Stephanie as well as Caroline does have children, however, and the succession will pass through Caroline.

For the genealogy here, Brian Tompsett's Royal and Noble genealogy unfortunately only goes back to 1458. At least the chronology can, however, be completed and compared using Bruce R. Gordon's Regnal Chronologies. Unfortunately, the historical page at Monaco itself does not seem to have such material at all. A remaining question is who "Ranier II" would have been.

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Francia Media & Occidentalis,
Burgundy & France;
Periphery of Francia, Spain

Counts of Provence and Barcelona, 801-1267 AD

County of Barcelona
Bera801-820
Bernard of Aquitaine827-829,
835-844
Berenguerc.830-835
Sunifred I of Carcassone844-848
William of Aquitaine848-849/50
Aleran848-852
Odalric852-c.858
Humfridc.858-864
Bernard of Gothia
(or Toulouse)
865-878
(d.884?)
Wifred I of Carcassone878-897
Wilfred II Borel I897-911
Barcelona begins as a March County, actually one of several Counties in Catalonia, won back from Islâmic Spain. It's ruler thus should have been a Marquis (Margrave, "march count", marchio in Latin). This term was used, but only as an extra, descriptive term and did not stick as a title or supplant that of "Count" (comes). As an extension of Francia, Barcelona and Catalonia were really fiefs of France (West Francia), not of a Spanish Monarchy that, of course, didn't exist yet. After the end of the
Carolingians in Francia, they began to drift out of the orbit of the northern Kingdom. On the other hand, Provence, which now is French beyond doubt, began as a fief of the Kingdom of Burgundy.

Of the early Counts, it takes a little while for the House of Carcassone, for which the genealogy is given below, to establish itself. Beginning the Wilfred I, however, all the Counts are derived from this family.
County of Arles
& Provence
County of Barcelona
Boso I926-935Suñer, Sunyer897-947
Boso II949-967Miron/Miró947-965
William I968-992Borel II947-992
Rotbold IICount,
961-1008
Raymond Borel992-1018
William IICount &
Margrave,
994-1018
Berengar Raymond I
the Hunchback
1018-1035
William IIIMargrave,
1018-1030
William IVCount,
1014-1037
Raymond Berengar I
the Old
1035-1076
GodfreyCount,
1032-1062;
Margrave,
1057-1062
Fulk Bertram I1018-1051Raymond Berengar II
the Towhead
1076-1082
Bertram II1051-1094Berengar Raymond II
the Fratricide
1076-1097
Gerberga1094-1118Raymond Berengar III
the Great
1086-1131
Dolca/Dulcia I1112-1131
Berengar
Raymond I
1131-1144Raymond Berengar IV
the Saint,
II of Provence
1131-1162
Regent, 1144-1157
Raymond
Berengar III
1144-1166
Dulcia II1166-1167,
d.1172
Raymond Berengar
IV
1167-1181Alfonso I, II of Aragón1162-1196
1181-1185King of
Aragón,
1162-1196
Alfonso II1185-1209Peter II1196-1213
King of
Aragón,
1196-1213
Raymond Berenger
V
1209-1245James I1213-1276
Beatrice1245-1267King of
Aragón,
1213-1276
marries Charles I of Anjou,
continues with Anjevian Line
continues with
Kings of Aragón

It is suitable that Barcelona and Provence should be considered together because Raymond Berengar III of Barcelona married the heiress of Provence, Dulcia I (or Dulce, Dolca, or Doucxe), and Provence is subsequently in the hands of his descendants, until a later heiress, Beatrice, marries Charles of Anjou.

Provence remains with Charles' descendants until the death, in fact the murder, of Queen Joanna I of Naples. Charles VI of France then succeeds in transferring Provence to the new Duke of Anjou, Louis I. With the later failure of male heirs, King Louis XI made sure that Provence reverted to the French Throne in 1481.

A nice irony that emerges in this genealogy is that Charles of Anjou ends up being deprived of Sicily, after the great revolt of the Sicilian Vespers (1282), by his own wife's second cousin, Peter III of Aragón.

The Counts of Provence (or Arles) seem to begin with a tangle of marriages between the Kings of Burgundy, the Counts of Arles, and the Dukes of Burgundy. There sometimes seems to be some confusion between Boso the Margrave of Tuscany and Count of Arles, the brother of Hugh, King of Lower Burgundy and Italy, and Boso I, his son-in-law, who seems to usually be considered the first Count of Provence. After him, however, the County falls to Boso (II) of Agel, from whom subsequent Counts of descended.

The County grew in responsibility and power with the defense of the area against the Arab raids of the "Second Dark Age" -- the hard times of Conrad "the Peaceful" of Burgundy. One consequence of this may be that the title of "margrave" gets added to the office, since a Margrave is particularly concerned with border defense. The Margrave title does not supersede the title of Count but does tend to fall on one holder at a time, while the title of Count is shared in traditional Germanic fashion by several brothers and cousins. One line of cousins dies out. Another line of cousins, sons of the Count and Margrave Godfrey, who are not shown here, end up as Counts of Forcalquier. The title of Margrave itself seems to pass through Godfrey's daughter, whose name is not known, to the Counts of Toulouse. The County soon passes through female heirs to the Counts of Barcelona.

In one list of Counts of Provence sent to me, there was an "Étiennette" given as ruling 1093-1100. She fit in between Bertram II and Gerberga. The only person I can find who this seems likely to be is Stefanie of Gevaudan, daughter of Gerberga and sister of Dulcia I. However, it looks like Stefanie would be a little young, and it is hard to imagine how she would precede her mother in the succession. So this may not be the right person, but there aren't any other Stefanies at that point in the Stammtafeln.

As with the County of Burgundy, assembling this section has not been easy. The chronology was originally largely derived from Bruce R. Gordon's Regnal Chronologies and the genealogy from Brian Tompsett's Royal and Noble genealogy, with modifications from The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume II, c.700-c.900 [Rosamond McKitterick, editor, Cambridge, 1995], The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, c.900-c.1024 [Timothy Reuter, editor, Cambridge, 1999], and WW-Person, A WWW Data base of European nobility. Where differences in names and dates, as we have come to expect, occur in comparison to Gordon and Tompsett, the Cambridge versions are given, with preference for Volume III over Volume II. The numbering in Tompsett often doesn't make any sense. Gordon has rationalized things for Provence, but Tompsett's numbers seem to be those that are used by the historians (e.g. Raymond Berengar V, not III, for the father of Beatrice of Provence), so the rationalization doesn't help much, and it looks like Gordon has left out a couple of Counts (Sancho and Raymond Berengar IV, though Sancho now appears not to have been a Count of Provence) that Tompsett includes. On the other hand, Tompsett does not have anyone who would correspond to Gordon's Dulcia II, who was a daughter of Raymond Berengar III ("Raymond Berengar II" to Gordon), as WW-Person actually shows (listing him as "II" on the index page -- where Dulcia is "III" rather than "II" -- but "V" on the genealogical page). The minor differences in dates are also a headache. It is very frustrating. General histories in print I've seen don't bother listing the Counts (except now for the Cambridge History), and the other pages on the Internet I've examined are unsystematic or simply disorganized.

Much of this I now considered superseded by the information in the Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte, Volume II, Part 1, Europäische Kaiser-, Königs- und Fürstenhäuser I Westeuropa [Andreas Thiele, Third Edition, R.G. Fischer Verlag, 2001], and Volume III, Europäische Kaiser-, Königs- und Fürstenhäuser Ergänzungsband [Andreas Thiele, Second Edition, R.G. Fischer Verlag, 2001]. Volume III contains the earliest Counts of Barcelona [p.138]. Volume II, Part 1, contains the Counts of Provence [pp.174-175] and further Counts of Barcelona [p.176]. Related lines in Burgundy and Italy are contained there and in Volume II, Part 2, Europäische Kaiser-, Königs- und Fürstenhäuser II Nord-, Ost- und Südeuropa [Andreas Thiele, Second Edition, R.G. Fischer Verlag, 1997]. The early genealogy of Provence is entirely from the Stammtafeln sources, with some advice from a correspondent in the Netherlands who uses older Stammtafeln editions.
 

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Counts of Urgel, Pallars, and Ribagorza, 844-1622 AD

The genealogy here for the Counties of Urgel, Pallars, Ribagorza is entirely the work of Derek R. Whaley. The sources he used were R. Gordon's Regnal Chronologies, for the sucession, with Leo van der Pas's Genealogics.org and the Society for Medieval Genealogy for the genealogy. I have slightly rearranged the tables to narrow them, but Mr. Whaley himself created the basic images in the format used in these pages.

The Counties of Urgel (or Urgell) and Pallars began as divisions of Catalonia under the Counts of Barcelona. They thus originate with the Reconquest of Spain by the Counts of Toulouse and the Dukes of Aquitaine. Ribagorza (Ribagorça in Catalan), a bit further west, was a division of the County of Aragón, but still part of the same process. Under Gonzalo (Gonçalvo), son of Sancho the Great of Navarra, Ribagorza was briefly a separate Kingdom. All of these territories, however, ended up as fiefs of the Kingdom of Aragón.

Separate lines of the Counts of Urgel survived until 1413, of Pallars until 1481, and of Ribagorza until 1622, after reverting to the Crowns of Navarra and Aragón more than once (1017 & 1425).

The Kings of Spain and Portugal, 718 AD-Present

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